NHS Digital Data Release Register - reformatted

University Of Sheffield

Project 1 — DARS-NIC-12983-Y3L3K

Opt outs honoured: N

Sensitive: Non Sensitive

When: 2016/04 (or before) — 2016/08.

Repeats: One-Off

Legal basis: Health and Social Care Act 2012

Categories: Anonymised - ICO code compliant

Datasets:

  • Hospital Episode Statistics Admitted Patient Care

Benefits:

The number of patient deaths that has been associated with non-optimal medical practices under hospital care has been of increasing concern to health and social care policy makers and practitioners. An increased demand for accountability at the level of these institutions has spurred the need for better measures of performance, and of comparison, between health care services. A significant variation in mortality rates according to week day of admission has been shown by several studies made in English hospitals. A greater understanding of this phenomenon would be of great benefit to administrators, regulators, and practitioners, as a potential problem locator identifying areas where further investigations and funding should focus into. This study will provide updated measures of hospital performance, identifying outlying (underperforming) hospitals. The study will also provide a hospital specific analysis of possible association between admission’s day of the week and increased mortality rates. Both of these analyses will be examined for stability over time, and variability. The potential benefits to accrue to the Health and Social care systems will be an evidence based, current report on the performance of non-specialist hospital in England, including an analysis of stability through time and trending. The report will be targeted at health and social care regulators and practitioners as well as scholars. This application continues the work of SHMI and is being processed by the same SHMI team who have been addressing the issue of hospital performance since the early 2000s, and although not new, the issue is still very much relevant to the current healthcare system. Many crucial questions regarding the understanding of the complexity of hospital safety and performance remain unanswered. The particular concern of the team is that an analysis of hospital performance should distinguish between high and low risk patient groups, and should investigate its relation to other factors such as day of week of admission. The main output from this research will be a report of the analysis that can identify hospitals that might need further investigation because of safety issues (identified by relatively poor performance in low risk patients) or quality issues (identified by relatively poor performance in high risk patients). If hospitals are identified that manifest poor performance that cannot be explained by the data this report will be supplied directly to the Department of Health. It is difficult to quantify how policy would be impacted by this work, but this research does continue the work done for SHMI, and so SHMI makes a good example. Around 60% of all deaths occur in hospital and preventing avoidable deaths is an essential objective for health services. The Francis Report on the Mid-Staffordshire Hospital Trust in Feb 2013 showed that excess mortality for the Trust was associated with poor care. The Summary Hospital Mortality Index (SHMI) was developed as a direct result of research carried out at the School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR). 14 hospitals (many of which were also identified ScHARRs report of 2011) were identified by the Department of Health as having unacceptably high mortality, over two years using the Sheffield SHMI, amongst other measures. The consequence was that the Care Quality Commission sent teams in to investigate the care of patients at these hospitals and this was reported in the Keogh report (2013) which will ultimately impacted staff, patients and hospital systems with the aim of improving patient outcomes

Outputs:

The outcomes expected from this analysis include: • a report of the analysis that can identifying hospitals that need further investigation, indicators of hospital performance will be produced for each non-specialist hospital (October 2017), • a Master’s thesis ( though this should not be considered a major output within this project) with a target date of September 2017 • abstracts, posters presented at academic conferences (with a target date of June 2017), • a journal article will be submitted to peer reviewed health-related journals (with a target date December 2017). The project will provide evidence for policy makers and hospital administrators to target appropriate interventions relating to the quality and safety of treatment offered to patients. The data set requested will be analysed and the analysis presented at research meetings. It is envisaged that research publications in peer reviewed papers will also be generated from the data. These conference presentations and papers will report aggregated results ACROSS patient episodes and the results will be based on statistical analysis generated from the data (typically in the format of tables, graphical representations and text). Target journals for publication include the BMJ, the Journal of Health Services Research and Policy, the BMC Medical Research Methodology, and the BMC Health Services Research. The dataset itself will not be released to any third party, including other staff within the University of Sheffield. The individual patient episodes within the data will not be disclosed at any stage in the reporting of the results. Furthermore, the report will not serve to identify any hospitals. It will be focused on the potential of the method to identify any hospitals where there are concerns about the relative safety of care. It will therefore be focused on potential users of the methods (i.e. Department of Health and HSCIC). The report will be sent directly to contacts in the Department of Health and also the SHMI Technical Working Group at HSCIC, with whom ScHARR developed the SHMI model.

Processing:

Five years of routine population level data will be examined. The data requested expands over a period of five years to ensure that the standardised risk model detects trends and is consistent with that of previous studies. The stability of the model through time is essential to ensure its validity; in particular, to ensure that meaningful changes can be detected and better distinguished from noise. Data will be drawn from HES Admitted Patient Care for non-specialist hospitals in England. The processing will be undertaken within a number of stages as outlined below: Stage 1: Secure management and analysis of hospital episode statistics (HES) for all in-patient admissions to non-specialist English hospitals. Stage 2: Development and validation of hospital performance measures focused on patient safety, and statistical modelling to estimate the risk of adverse events (e.g. death in hospital) for every admission. Logistic regression models, using the covariates explored in the development of SHMI will be employed to estimate the risk of death (or other serious adverse event such as unexpected transfer to critical care) for each admission. Analysis of possible association between the day of the week an admission takes place and an increased risk of adverse outcome. Stage 3: Comparison of risk adjusted event rates indicating unsafe performance between hospitals, and development of appropriate graphical methods such as funnel plots to compare casemix or risk adjusted event rates between hospitals. Stage 4: Development of a critique of the methods to provide a clear interpretation of the results and their limitations. Stage 5: Elaboration of a report on the findings, and potential submission to publication. The data will be processed and analysed within a single department within the University of Sheffield, the School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR). The data will not, in any circumstances, be released to a third party, nor will it be used for commercial purposes. The data will be accessed by a restricted number of authorised individuals within the study team. Authorisation to the specific project system folder will be given to a strictly limited number of individuals, namely the principal investigators and the statistician. All these individuals work within the same department (ScHARR) at the University of Sheffield and are subject to strict confidentiality and secure data management policies. The data will be cleaned and analysed by the statisticians, the analysis of the dataset will be performed in line with the protocol approved by ScHARR Ethics committee, and will abide by the University’ of Sheffield’s Ethics Policy. The data will be reported to the other members the School in the form of a report detailing the aggregated results. The project folder, containing the data, will be located in a networked PC that is username and password protected. Only specific users and specific on-site machines will be granted permission to the project folder. All access will be logged. After the three year period the data will be destroyed under supervision of ScHARR IT staff. The Department (School of Health and Related Research) has achieved IGTK approval level ‘satisfactory’ in order to process large routine data.

Objectives:

There is considerable public interest in the early identification of poorly performing hospitals which are providing unsafe or poor quality care to the patient populations they serve. The analysis of large sets of routine, observational data will be used to assess and compare the safety and quality of care provided by different hospitals. “Unsafe” hospitals may be characterised as those having higher numbers of serious adverse events in low risk admissions than could be expected just by chance. Although similar ideas have been examined previously, these studies have been based on low risk diagnostic groups rather than low risk patients. Based on this concept, and using different measures to assess expected and observed outcomes, the performance of hospitals will be compared. Evidence of validity will be gathered by triangulating with other sources of evidence about safety concerns; by examining face validity based on determining what sort of 'low risk' patients having adverse events are being identified; and examining temporal stability as an indication that a 'characteristic' of the hospital is being measured. While some of the differences between hospitals are a result of intrinsic patient related factors (such as differing levels of deprivation, geography, comorbidity, and age), other differences seem likely to be intrinsic to the service factors offered within each hospital. This research complements the work done in the development and validation of the Summary Hospital-level Mortality Index (SHMI), and in the development of methods for risk standardization and performance measures. The index was commissioned by the department of health and developed by ScHARR using five years of HES patient data. The SHMI provides a simple numerical tool for use in the identification of hospitals in need of further investigation. The project will provide evidence for policy makers and hospital administrators to target appropriate interventions relating to the quality and safety of treatment offered to patients. The applicant is requesting a de-identified data set and will not request sensitive items of data. The data set requested will be analysed and the analysis presented at research meetings. It is envisaged that research publications in peer reviewed papers will also be generated from the data. These conference presentations and papers will report aggregated results across patient episodes and the results will be based on statistical analysis generated from the data (typically in the format of tables, graphical representations and text). The dataset itself will not be released to any third party, including other staff within the University of Sheffield. The individual patient episodes within the data will not be disclosed at any stage in the reporting of the results.


Project 2 — DARS-NIC-29100-R2S2F

Opt outs honoured: N

Sensitive: Non Sensitive

When: 2017/06 — 2018/05.

Repeats: One-Off

Legal basis: Health and Social Care Act 2012

Categories: Anonymised - ICO code compliant

Datasets:

  • Hospital Episode Statistics Accident and Emergency
  • Hospital Episode Statistics Admitted Patient Care

Benefits:

Management of the intoxicated in city centres is complex and involves partnerships between health, police and ambulance services. Further, AIMS services are typically commissioned by local governments, police, health care or other agencies in partnership. AIMS are being implemented or decommissioned by NHS Trustsservices throughout England and Wales without any evidence on their effectiveness or cost effectiveness. Further different types of AIMS in operation including mobile units verses permanent units and it is important to understand what works and what does not work in order to make recommendations. Further, there is an increased demand on EDs with approximately 70% of attendances being alcohol related at peak times. This can create bottlenecks in the NHS system which can impact on health care. AIMS have the potential to alleviate this bottleneck by reallocating resources which can thus improve unscheduled care. However, existing AIMS services have not yet been evaluated and it is important to establish whether they are effective and if they are whether all types of services are effective or only specific types. This analysis will evaluate the system and identify what works well and make recommendations about where improvements can be made for local and national decision makers in the NHS. Clearly if AIMS are not cost effective this will highlight a need for action. The potential benefits of AIMS to people seen in the ED and AIMS units are difficult to measure because of the complex nature of the problem. For the intoxicated the goal of AIMS units are to ensure they are treated in a safe environment and aim I of the project will seek to measure this, which is outside the NHS Digital request. By potentially addressing the bottleneck in EDs other non-intoxicated patients can be seen more quickly and treated sooner and the analysis of time to treatment, time to assessment and total time in ED and looking at the throughput of patients through an ED will answer these questions. While our primary interest is in the area of health, we also recognise that learning could promote co-funding and thus decision makers across the three primary partners need to be involved in real-time. In this respect we aim to develop diffusion and dissemination strategies that both capitalise on stable links with local and national stakeholders and that are also able to encourage engagement in the face of rapid change. As such three diffusion mechanisms will be exploited: (1) A Policy and Impact Group led by project investigators that will be responsible for dissemination; (2) a Study Steering Committee (for preliminary membership see below), that includes a broad range of practitioners and (3) the formation and ongoing development of a Learning Community for practitioners who want to be involved with the project but are unable to commit sufficient resources to become more fully involved. The Policy and Impact Group have experience of engagement and are directly involved with a number of policy and practice groups and key stakeholders (Department of Health, Primary Care Trusts, and Local Authorities). The group will continue to engage with policy impact groups and ensure the results are disseminated to these groups (e.g. UK Home Office, DoH, Welsh Government, NHS, Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO), College of Emergency Medicine, Local Alcohol Action Areas (LAAAs)). In addition, the group will write a practitioner oriented report the aim of which would be to provide a summary of findings in such a way that the report can be used for service development across the UK. One of the remits of the Study Steering Committee (SSC) is to ensure outputs are relevant and timely, and that can provide advice and decision making capacity to the research team, including guidance on dissemination of outputs. The SSC will be initiated in accordance with the NIHR HS&DR guidelines “Research Governance Guidelines: Study Steering Committee (SSC).” The SSC will provide the primary mechanism through which we will reach key decision makers and this diffusion mechanism will develop in parallel with Work Stream I. The SSC will identify both diffusion partners through which learnings can be best promulgated (e.g. ACPO, Community Safety Partnerships, Regional Leads for Public Health, the Welsh Government, and the regional commissioning boards for Clinical Commissioning Groups) and seek to target decision makers in Scotland, England, Wales and Northern Ireland. The Learning Community will operate in parallel with Work Package I and SSC, and will seek to identify local and national parties that would be interested in learnings from the project but are unable to contribute to it. To facilitate engagement an online resource will be developed that makes use of social media such that interested parties are able to keep abreast of project developments with little effort. An online regular update will be published on a quarterly basis, promulgate this through email and twitter and encourage feedback to the Project Team. The recent "Have a Word" Knowledge Transfer Partnership (www.vrg.cf.ac.uk/Files/20140107_KTP_finalreport.pdf) that successfully engaged practitioners through social media, branding and media to encourage engagement in clinical and other staff will be used as a template. Formal and informal diffusion mechanisms will encourage practitioners and decision-makers to both contribute their views on managing the intoxicated and sign up to receive regular updates on project activity. These materials will also be made available to mainstream media and place quarterly updates on-line and encourage more general feedback from the public. This analysis will be completed by January 2018 or six months after receipt of HES data from NHS Digital if later. The outputs will be shared in terms of a final report and five peer reviewed open access publications, one on the overall results and a further two related to work packages 2 and 3. Results of the analysis will be disseminated in an easy to digest and accessible online format that seeks to develop the co-production of guidance on best practice and will also be released as part of our study newsletter. In addition to the guidance on best practice further realistic actionable learning outcomes will be defined throughout the project in collaboration with the study management group, study steering committee and with feedback from the learning community. A patient and public involvement ( PPI) group is actively involved in the project, owing to the complexity of the project there are PPI members from three different areas: a member of The Involving People Network, Wales sits on the project steering group, and members of The Sheffield Emergency Care Forum (SECF) who reviewed earlier drafts of the protocol and The Sheffield Addiction Recovery Research Panel (ShARRP) form a separate PPI advisory group. Whilst the group are primarily involved in work stream (aim) I which includes surveys they will form a crucial part in ensuring the results are disseminated appropriately.

Outputs:

The results of this study will be published in an NIHR HS&DR report, which is an open access publication. The report will be completed and sent to NIHR before the end of July 2018. The project also aims to publish the results in high quality peer review journals, the main outcomes work is likely to be submitted to a generic journal such as the BMJ or the Journal of Public Health. The health economic results will be submitted to a health economic journal series such as Medical Decision Making. A recommendation report will also be produced that will be made available to trusts, ambulance service, police services and charities that are interested in setting up AIMS services in their area. Descriptive statistics for the cohort will be presented at summary level, for example mean with standard deviation for continuous variables and numbers with proportions for categorical data. Results will be presented in an aggregate form, for ED and inpatient admissions this would be number of admissions per day and graphical figures of this data will be presented in the same format. The time series analysis of this data is looking at trends over time before and after the implementation of this intervention. Survival analysis methods will be used to analyse time, such as time in the ED, time to treatment and time to assessment. Results and figures will again be presented at an aggregate level. A comparison will also be made between AIMS cities and matched (using Home Office iQuanta) cities that currently don’t have AIMS. Resource use includes items such as the ED attendance, ambulance journey, inpatient stay and length of stay. The project will account for differences in key resource variables which expect to be in-patient admissions and length of stay as these are known to be expensive, by including them in the time series analysis as variables. The economic analysis will follow guidance on cost-effectiveness analysis set out by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE, 2013). Results will be presented as total costs to the NHS and the costs of AIMS with be compared with costs of usual care as costs per ED admission avoided. All outputs will contain data only in aggregated form (with small numbers suppressed in accordance with the HES Analysis Guide). No commercial requests will be worked on.

Processing:

Data will be stored on a secure drive at the University of Sheffield on a (securely housed) networked virtual machine accessible only from within the campus network. Four people (all substantive employees of the University of Sheffield) will have access to the data, data-manager who will be responsible for cleaning the data, one a statistician health economist, a health economist research assistant and a statistician research assistant. No record-level data will be shared outside of these substantive employees. The data will be analyses to establish the effectiveness of AIMS services and for estimating the cost-effectiveness of AIMS (see specific outcomes for further details). If small numbers arise they will be suppressed in accordance with the NHS Digital HES Analysis Guide and will follow guidelines regarding sensitive conditions. There will be no sharing of record-level data with third parties. No attempt will be made to re-identify anyone from the data. The data will not be linked and will never be used for commercial purposes. The primary analysis will explore whether the intervention impacts on the number of ED attendances and will use an interrupted time series analysis of this data is looking at trends over time before and after the implementation of this intervention. To conduct this analysis on data from each intervention city it is assumed that each AIMS is open twice a week and will have at least 104 observations over a minimum period of 365 days. Statistical tests including the Dickey-Fuller test, autocorrelation (ACF) and partial auto correlation will be used to establish seasonality, stationarity and differencing which are for establishing the presence of absence of patterns common to time-series data. Other statistical tests will be carried out to establish the statistical model fit and model goodness of fit. Time series models will also include information on type of incident, age and diagnosis, investigations and treatments in order to examine the effect of AIMS on different patient groups. Secondary outcomes include hospital admissions, ED key performance indicators (total time in the ED, time to treatment, time to initial assessment, those leaving the ED before being treated and re-attendances within 7 days). Survival analysis methods will be used to analyse time, such as time in the ED, time to treatment and time to assessment. The Kaplan-Meier test will be used to explore differences in total times in the ED, time to treatment and time to initial assessment and an appropriate statistical test will be used to examine differences between groups (for example if times are evenly distributed over time then a log-rank test would be used). If the data is of sufficient quality to examine the impact of time (total, assessment and treatment) on a number of variables then an appropriate semiparametric (Cox proportional hazard model) or parametric survival model will be fitted to the data. An appropriate regression model (ordinary least squares or generalised linear model) will be used to look at length of stay and proportions will be examined using the Chi-squared statistic and logistic regression analysis to allow for differences in case mix. A comparison will also be made between AIMS cities and paired matched (using Home Office iQuanta) cities that currently don’t have AIMS. Poisson regression models will be used to examine the number of ED attendances between AIMS and control cities to allow for differences in case-mix. Resource use includes items such as the ED attendance, ambulance journey, inpatient stay and length of stay. The study will account for differences in key resource variables which expect to be in-patient admissions and length of stay as these are known to be expensive, by including them in the time series analysis as variables. The cost of setting up and running an AIMS will be collected from each AIMS site, this will be collated at the aggregate (overall cost) level. The resource use related to the cost of ED services will be obtained from HES and ambulance dispatch data (this information will not be linked but a cost for each service obtained. Unit costs will be obtained from NHS reference costs for HES data. The mean costs of AIMS will be compared with the mean cost of usual care and results will be presented as mean incremental cost per ED admission avoided. The study will also look at the mean incremental cost per ambulance dispatch avoided. The economic analysis will follow guidance on cost-effectiveness analysis set out by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE, 2013). The statistical package STATA will be used for all analysis.

Objectives:

The evaluation of the diversion of alcohol related attendances is an National Institute of Health Research, Health Service and Research Delivery Programme funded research project to estimate the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, efficiency and acceptability of alcohol intoxication management services (AIMS) in managing alcohol-related ED attendances. AIMS, also referred to as Alcohol Treatment Centres, Alcohol Recovery Centres, Alcohol Welfare Centres and, in the media, “Drunk Tanks”) are designed to receive, treat and monitor intoxicated patients who would normally attend Emergency Departments (ED) and to lessen the burden that alcohol-misuse, an avoidable healthcare cost, places on unscheduled care. AIMS offer the potential to mitigate some of the pressures on ED at times when it is experiencing a sustained increase in demand. At peak times (e.g. Friday and Saturday nights) most admissions to ED are alcohol-related and they cause the ED clinical environment to suffer, as well as staff morale. This study, which began in January 2016, is a mixed methods study and this request is for NHS Digital HES ED and inpatient data to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of AIMS. The study follows a natural experiment where six cities have been recruited which have already implemented AIMS throughout England and Wales and will compare them to six control cities where no AIMS is present (ten cities in England, two in Wales). AIMS cities will be matched with control cities for similar demographic characteristics using Home Office iQuanta. There are three focuses to the evaluation: i) What is the impact of Alcohol Intoxication Management Services (AIMS) on the work practices and professional identities of frontline staff in managing the intoxicated and other related work activities? ii) To what extent does AIMS implementation affect key performance indicators in ambulance and health services? iii) What are the costs of setting up and running an AIMS and what cost savings may be realised elsewhere? The aim being to provide evidence that informs local and national decision makers on opportunity for a national roll-out across UK cities and provide information about what works through the study of effectiveness, efficiency, processes, barriers and opportunities. The School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR) at The University of Sheffield are responsible for work stream (aims) 2 and 3. This request is for data to enable the study to answer aims ii) and iii) and we are collecting data from ambulance services, AIMS service providers (NHS, charities, police services) in order to achieve the study aims. All data being requested is pseudonymised and will not be linked as in line with the HES analysis guide. (Note that on page 14 of the protocol it is stated that the study would explore the linkage of AIMS data to routine NHS data, the conclusion of this exploration is that it is not viable to link and therefore no linkage of datasets will be carried out). The data requested is for work stream (aims) ii and iii only and will not be used in work stream i.data is only accessed by staff of University of Sheffield. In order to assess key performance indicators (aim ii) it is aimed that it will be use in an interrupted time series approach to look at the impact on ED attendances (primary outcome), total time spent in ED, time to treat and alcohol related inpatient attendances. The project will evaluate the effectiveness by comparing attendance rates in control and intervention cites. The study will also present AIMS activity data in terms of a summary of patient characteristics, and AIMS models (who provides the AIMS service and the type of service e.g. mobile or permanent services). This study will also conduct an economic evaluation to determine the costs required to set up and run an AIMS and estimate the cost savings to other health services. The costs of setting up an AIMS will be requested directly from the service providers (NHS, charities, police services) however, the study also needs pseudonymised data on services and treatments provided in the ED and for hospital admissions, including length of stay, and services provided in order to fully evaluate the cost-effectiveness of AIMS and its impact on the NHS.


Project 3 — DARS-NIC-315175-P8X6Z

Opt outs honoured: Y, N

Sensitive: Sensitive, and Non Sensitive

When: 2016/04 (or before) — 2017/02.

Repeats: Ongoing, One-Off

Legal basis: Section 251 approval is in place for the flow of identifiable data, Section 42(4) of the Statistics and Registration Service Act (2007) as amended by section 287 of the Health and Social Care Act (2012)

Categories: Identifiable, Anonymised - ICO code compliant

Datasets:

  • MRIS - Flagging Current Status Report
  • MRIS - Cause of Death Report
  • Hospital Episode Statistics Accident and Emergency
  • Hospital Episode Statistics Admitted Patient Care
  • Hospital Episode Statistics Critical Care

Benefits:

Purpose #1: PhOEBE Study The emergency ambulance service is the first point of contact with the NHS for over 6 million patients a year who have an urgent healthcare problem. Ambulance services in England have recently changed their service to meet the needs of patients in a timely and clinically appropriate way. For example, taking some patients directly to specialist care, providing care at home, or referring to other services. In order to assess how well these and any future changes are working in terms of improving care for patients the ambulance service needs to measure the impact they are having on the patients they attend. At present this is difficult as ambulance services have no information about what happens to patients once they have left their care. Using the outcome measures developed in the PhOEBE study, ambulance services will be able to measure the impact the care they provide has on patients, they will be able to assess the impact of services changes using before and after service change data and for benchmarking and across Trust comparisons. The PhOEBE study is due to end inJanuary 2017. The benefits described are the result of the PhOEBE programme, which is a 5 year NIHR funded research programme. Purpose #2: VAN Study As the costs of ambulance care keep rising, due to the year on year increase in demand for ambulance services, it is important that the ambulance service develop better ways of managing this demand. This was highlighted in the recent Keough report. As Ambulance services currently have no data or information about mortality or hospitalisation rates for people who they do not convey to hospital, there is very little evidence base from which this service design can be attributed to. The results from this study will provide ambulance services with key information about what happens to this group of patients and enable ambulance services to assess the safety, appropriateness and cost of different types of non-conveyance. This study also has wider issues for the health care economy. For example, if patients who are not conveyed to hospital end up utilising more health services this can be detrimental to the wider health service. This information is important for service development and demand management and is of particular interest to ambulance service managers, policy makers, NHS England and service commissioners. This analysis is being provided for academic publications that will be useful to policy makers and service providers in the UK and internationally. The results of this study will be fed directly to ambulance trusts and also to NHS England. The media team will also arrange press releases and the study will work with Patient and Public Involvement groups to discuss/decide on further publications.

Outputs:

Purpose #1: PhOEBE Study The primary output will be a final report to NIHR in January 2017. Further dissemination of findings will be achieved via journal publications on the methodology and results of the 8 measures and how they could be used - the target journals are the Emergency Medical Journal and Annals of Emergency Medicine - and presentations during2016, 2017 and 2018. Data will be presented by analysis groups e.g. patients with serious emergency conditions, patients who received telephone advice, comparisons of ambulance trusts. Outputs will contain aggregated data only. As the data sample is large the expectation is that there will be no groups will small numbers but if small numbers are present they will be suppressed in line with the HES Analysis Guide. Purpose #2: VAN Study Health Service & Delivery Research Programme (separate research stream from within NIHR – other is programme grants for applied research) The primary output will be a final report to the NHIR’s Health Service & Delivery Research Programme (HS&DR) in January 2017. Further dissemination of findings will be achieved via journal publications - the target journals are the Emergency Medical Journal and BMJ Open in 2017 – and the following presentations: Health Services Research Network (HSRN ) 2017 and 999 EMS research forum 2017. The 999 EMA research forum is attended by senior managers and policy makers. All outputs will contain aggregated data only. Data will be presented within analysis groups, for example, type of non-conveyance. Outputs will contain only aggregate level data with small numbers suppressed in line with HES analysis guide.

Processing:

Purpose #1: PhOEBE Study The PhOEBE team identified potential prehospital outcome measures from systematic reviews of the literature and patient interviews. The measures were developed and refined during a consensus process, using face to face consensus events and a Delphi study. The final output was a shortlist of 8 measures that can be measured using routinely collected information and represent a broad patient population and multiple clinical conditions. Based on a prespecified 6 month time period, two study ambulance services identified and extracted all CAD and ePRF data for ambulance contacts where an electronic Patient Report Form (ePRF) was used. Ambulance service staff split the data files into a pseudonymised clinical file and an identifiable data linking file. The data linking file was sent to HSCIC using their SEFT system. The clinical file was sent to the PhOEBE study team at the University of Sheffield. The HSCIC linked the data linking file (ambulance data) to HES APC, HES A&E and ONS data using their data linking algorithm. Where NHS numbers are not available within the ambulance data, with permission from CAG, HSCICs NHS number tracing service was used to ensure more accurate linkages. Following completion of the data linking, HSCIC securely sent the linked data file to the PhOEBE study team. Prior to sending, HSCIC removed or pseudonymised identifiable data. For example, patient names were removed, date of birth was changed to age, etc. Upon receipt of the linking file the PhoEBE team linked this to the clinical data using a unique key, which is a unique number for each record that is present in the clinical data and the linking data files. Using this process, no patient identifiable data items was handled outside of NHS Trusts and organisations. This process will be repeated using all CAD and ePRF data for ambulance contacts where an electronic Patient Report Form (ePRF) was used for a further 6 month period directly following the first period. The PhOEBE study team will build and test predictive models using the measures and measures will be risk adjusted where appropriate. This analysis will be undertaken by statisticians within the PhOEBE project team. The team also intend to track what happens to patients once they have left the ambulance service care. However this is at a system level rather than an individual patient level. The team will report on length of hospital stay, readmissions, EMS recontacts and mortality. Outputs will not be at record level. Comparisons will be made across ambulance trusts and type of service received, (telephone advice; treated at home; conveyed to hospital). The data will not be used for commercial purposes, not provided in record level form to any third party and not used for direct marketing. Purpose #2: VAN Study This application relates to Workpackage 3.2 of the study protocol 'final protocol published v2 LSOA 121214'. Workpackage 3.2, in this new study, aims to use the linked dataset constructed by HSCIC for the NIHR Applied Research Programme PhOEBE. In workpackage 3.2 of the VAN study, the University of Sheffield will use data from the PhOEBE study relating to people who were not conveyed to hospital to identify the mortality rate, the hospitalisation rate, and the Emergency Department (ED) attendance rate for non-conveyed patients. The focus of the study is understanding variation in non-conveyance. The VAN study will consider patient, crew and locality level characteristics only. This is because the team will have this data for two ambulance services only. East Midlands Ambulance Sevice (EMAS) covers five localities and Yorkshire Ambulance Service (YAS) linked data will only cover one locality. The study has NHS ethic approval to use the PhOEBE data in the VAN study and the University of Sheffield have correspondence from CAG stating that additional CAG approvals are not required to reuse the PhOEBE data in the VAN study as the data is de-identified and there are no other data being used in the VAN study which could be used to re-identify the data. Whilst the VAN study is collecting additional data within its other study workpackages, this data is different to the data that is being reused from the PhOEBE study and cannot be combined. VAN is collecting qualitative data from people working within and related to the ambulance service and routine ambulance dispatch data (CAD) from 11 ambulance services. Whilst the CAD data is patient level data, it relates to a different time period to the PhOEBE data and does not contain any patient identifiable data. Therefore it is not possible to link the PhOEBE data to the VAN data or to identify individuals from the data. The same people are working on both the PhOEBE project and the VAN project. The data management and support officer works across both projects and will write a query using the software package R to extract the data required for VAN from the main PhOEBE dataset. For the VAN study the team do not need full date of death or cause of death. They can request that the PhOEBE study review the data and provide date of death as a total rather than at patient level - i.e. number of deaths within 3 days or number of deaths within 7 days from interaction with the ambulance service etc. They also only need access to the cause of death to eliminate data for patients who would have died anyway e.g. those receiving palliative care. The new dataset will be placed in a folder which is stored on a virtual machine (VM). VM data is only accessible from specific encrypted computers by specific named people. The research teams will guarantee that the 2 datasets, PhOEBE and VAN, will be kept separately. All approved staff work across both the PhOEBE and the VAN projects. The same analysts are working on both projects and no additional people require access to any data. The same security standards apply as for the PhOEBE project. Outputs will not be at record level. The data will not be used for commercial purposes, not provided in record level form to any third party and not used for direct marketing.

Objectives:

Purpose #1: PhOEBE Study The PhOEBE research programme aims to identify, refine and test (using predictive models) a set of prehospital outcome measures that can be measured using information that is routinely collected. The measures will be used to measure the impact the care ambulance services provide has on patients, to assess the impact of services changes using before and after service change data and for benchmarking and across Trust comparisons. A secondary objective is to test the feasibility of linking patient level ambulance data with subsequent health data, as this has not been done before. The PhOEBE study has previously received the pseudonymised linked data of all patients whose contact with specific ambulance services during the first half of 2013 was recorded by an electronic Patient Report Form (ePRF) or who received telephone advice from the ambulance service. This data was used to identify and refine the outcome measures. A further linkage is required involving the patients whose ambulance contact was recorded during the second half of 2013. Their pseudonymised linked data will be used to test the measures, using predictive models where appropriate. This second set of data relates to a different time period and different patients. Purpose #2: VAN Study Increasing use of the emergency ambulance service has the potential to overload ambulance services and reduce the quality of service offered to life threatening emergencies. The task for services is to try and match their response to the clinical needs of callers. Alternative care such as advice over the telephone and referral to more appropriate providers (‘hear and treat’), treatment at scene (‘see and treat’), or transport to a lower level health care facility (‘see and convey elsewhere’) may offer better solutions for some calls. Non-conveyance is central to the recent Keogh review of urgent and emergency care because it is a way of offering patients care closer to home (NHS England, 2013). Considerable variation exists in non-conveyance rates between the 11 ambulance services in England. Some variation may be warranted because of differences in population characteristics in geographical areas covered by ambulances services, some may be due to organisational differences between the services, and some may be the result of differences in the wider emergency and urgent care system and options available to manage care closer to home. There is a need to understand how to increase non-conveyance rates without compromising safety in terms of higher re-contact rates or other adverse consequences. The VAN study will explore the drivers of variation to help ambulance services to identify ways of increasing non-conveyance rates appropriately in the future. The VAN study will use a subset of data supplied for the PhOEBE study. It will require the data only of patients who were ‘not conveyed’ to hospital following a call to the ambulance service. Due to time constraints, the VAN study will only use the data of patients whose ambulance contact was recorded during the first half of 2013. This data has already been linked and supplied to the University of Sheffield.


Project 4 — DARS-NIC-366216-Z9H9Q

Opt outs honoured: N

Sensitive: Non Sensitive

When: 2017/12 — 2018/02.

Repeats: Ongoing

Legal basis: Health and Social Care Act 2012

Categories: Anonymised - ICO code compliant

Datasets:

  • Hospital Episode Statistics Admitted Patient Care

Benefits:

General benefits of the research programme === One in five adults in the UK smokes and one in five adults drinks alcohol in hazardous or harmful ways. These ‘lifestyle factors’ are leading causes of preventable illness and death, including from heart disease and cancers. Over 80,000 people a year die earlier than they should from diseases caused by drinking or smoking. For those who smoke and drink alcohol, the risk of developing these preventable diseases is even greater. This preventable human loss is compounded by an annual cost to the NHS of over £6 billion. The broad aim of the research programme is to identify and evaluate approaches to reducing the harm from tobacco and alcohol, with the aim of improving commissioning in a public health policy context i.e. providing knowledge to support benefits achieved by policymakers. The findings will provide evidence to inform choices between policy options that aim to reduce the harms that arise from tobacco and alcohol consumption. Such strategies may include, for example, interventions on price, advertising and availability licensing. There is a particular need for more evidence in this area because patterns of alcohol and tobacco consumption are changing rapidly, demanding new policy approaches at national and local authority levels. As this is an ongoing programme of research, the future benefits achieved by the programme would be lost if the data sharing ceases. Specific benefits for projects currently in progress (as at September 2017) === 1. UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies (UKCTAS) - extension of The University of Sheffield’s alcohol modelling to tobacco. The new tobacco and alcohol model will produce detailed appraisals of the potential effects of tobacco control policies. As common methods are used for both tobacco and alcohol, The University will therefore be able to compare the relative benefits of policies focused on tobacco vs. alcohol. 2. Royal College of Physicians report on improving delivery of smoking interventions in the NHS. The report will show the potential gains from improving the delivery of smoking interventions in NHS settings. 3. Appraising the effect of implementing local Minimum Unit Pricing under the Sustainable Communities Act on alcohol consumption and health in the North West of England. The project will produce evidence that will be submitted as part of the legal case for minimum unit pricing in the North West of England. 4. A comprehensive evaluation of the impact of nine years of English tobacco control policy using secondary data. By showing the past impact of tobacco control policy the project will provide evidence to support decisions on future policy. 5. Helping people cope with temptations to smoke to reduce relapse. The results of this trial will provide evidence to inform policy decisions on the best way to help people who have recently quit smoking to avoid relapse. 6. Joint appraisal of tobacco and alcohol tax interventions. There is evidence that people buy less cigarettes and alcoholic drinks when the price increases. Health advocates are therefore calling for higher taxes and changes to tax structures on alcohol and tobacco products to encourage people to quit smoking and reduce their drinking. The results of this project will provide a range of stakeholders with estimates of the potential effects of changing the UK tax regime across tobacco alcohol. 7. Exploring the impact of Public Health engagement in licensing. The results of this project will provide direct evidence to Public Health teams in Local Authorities across England and Scotland about their potential to improve population health through engagement with the alcohol licensing process. It will also inform national policy makers about the impacts of differences between current licensing regulations and processes between England and Scotland.

Outputs:

General outputs of the research programme === The outputs of the research programme span multiple projects; target dates are given for each project underway (as at September 2017). In general terms the outputs of the projects generate knowledge for policymakers to support decision-making. These outputs generally comprise reports to funders, publications in peer-reviewed journals and a variety of formal and informal modes of communication of our findings to policymakers. It is anticipated that publications will follow the research team’s track record of publishing in medical journals (BMJ, Lancet), specialist alcohol/tobacco journals (Addiction), and health economics journals (Journal of Health Economics). All outputs will only contain results in highly aggregated format and as statistical summaries and measures of association. Small numbers will be suppressed in line with the HES Analysis Guide. Record level information will not be released to any third party. In general outputs are made public through The University’s website and through free open-access peer-reviewed publications that are deposited in the White Rose online repository http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/. The University also engage with policymakers and other stakeholders before and after publication through regular meetings and responding to specific requests for evidence. Specific outputs for projects currently in progress (as at September 2017) === 1. UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies (UKCTAS) - extension of The University of Sheffield’s alcohol modelling to tobacco. The output is a new computer programme that is the Sheffield Tobacco and Alcohol Policy Model. Specific outputs come through the use of this model in the projects below. 2. Royal College of Physicians report on improving delivery of smoking interventions in the NHS. The report is expected in 2018 and The University will also publish findings in peer-reviewed journals. 3. Appraising the effect of implementing local Minimum Unit Pricing under the Sustainable Communities Act on alcohol consumption and health in the North West of England. In addition to peer-reviewed articles etc., statements of evidence suitable for submission under the Sustainable Communities Act will be developed by the end of 2018. 4. A comprehensive evaluation of the impact of nine years of English tobacco control policy using secondary data. The modelling work will take place in 2019 and outputs will be made public online, reports to the Department of Health and peer-reviewed journals. 5. Helping people cope with temptations to smoke to reduce relapse. Modelling work is due to be conducted in 2019 after completion of the trial. 6. Joint appraisal of tobacco and alcohol tax interventions. The project is due to start in March 2018 and the main modelling work will be conducted in the 3rd year of this 3 year project. Outputs will be made public online, reports to the NIHR and peer-reviewed journals. 7. Exploring the impact of Public Health engagement with licensing in England and Wales. The modelling work will take place between April 2018 and March 2020 and outputs will be made public online, through reports to the NIHR and peer-reviewed journals.

Processing:

All organisations party to this agreement must comply with the Data Sharing Framework Contract requirements, including those regarding the use (and purposes of that use) by “Personnel” (as defined within the Data Sharing Framework Contract i.e.: employees, agents and contractors of the Data Recipient who may have access to that data). Processing activities common across the programme of research === Justification for the data required --- The data will be used primarily to examine conditions that have been classed as wholly or partially attributable to the consumption of tobacco or alcohol. The list of conditions is therefore large (approximately 60 separate ICD-10 categories), as it includes several cancers, cardiovascular diseases and respiratory diseases. The diagnosis and procedure codes may feature in the first or subsequent episodes in an admission and may also feature in any of the diagnosis and procedure code fields. The data will be analysed on admissions as well as on patients. This is because a small number of patients can have multiple admissions for the focal conditions. The pseudonymised HES-ID will be used to understand patients’ history of hospital episodes. As the research programme involves the analysis of on-going time trends, data is needed from 2002/3 to the latest available. Currently the University has a project funded by the Department of Health that requires data from 2003 to 2015 (A comprehensive evaluation of the impact of recent English tobacco control policy using secondary data). The project proposal states: "In this study, we will consider theories of how laws and policies implemented between 2003 and 2015 are likely to work, whom they are most likely to affect, and what their influence will be on smoking and related ill-health." In general, the University anticipates that the programme of work will involve the analysis of trends in tobacco- and alcohol-related hospital admissions. For example, the University has previously described time trends in alcohol consumption and availability. Future analyses are likely to extend this to investigate the relationship to trends in hospital admissions, as the University are doing currently for smoking. Angus C, Holmes J, Maheswaran R, Green MA, Meier P, Brennan A (2017) 'Mapping patterns and trends in the spatial availability of alcohol using low-level geographic data: A case study in England 2003-2013', International Journal of Environmental Research in Public Health, 14(4), 404 Purshouse RC, Brennan A, Moyo D, Nicholls J, Norman P. (2017) 'Typology and dynamics of heavier drinking style in Great Britain: 1978-2010', Alcohol and Alcoholism, DOI:10.1093/alcalc/agw105 There are five reasons to request the HES data (note no data is required relating to Augmented Care Periods, Maternity, or Psychiatric episodes): 1. The list of diseases related to tobacco and alcohol is also expanding as more epidemiological information on the relationships between certain diseases and tobacco/alcohol becomes available. The University monitor the published evidence on disease attribution and periodically update the list of diseases of interest. 2. Due to the health economic focus of the programme of research, it is important to know about other (co-morbid) non-alcohol or tobacco related conditions that individuals have been diagnosed with as this can inflate the healthcare costs generated by that individual. The University are therefore requesting the data so that they can assess how co-morbid conditions (including conditions that are not associated with tobacco or alcohol) might modify the healthcare costs that are estimated to be associated with tobacco or alcohol related conditions. 3. Variation among local authorities in the rates of admission from non-alcohol or tobacco related conditions can modify the proportion of that region’s healthcare costs accounted for by alcohol and tobacco related conditions. The University are therefore requesting the HES data (excluding sensitive items) so that they can assess the costs of admissions related to alcohol and tobacco relative to the cost of non-alcohol or tobacco related admissions by local authority. 4. Completeness of coding and the type of codes used (e.g. “bucket” codes) may vary by Trust across the country and across time and have the potential to bias small area level studies. The University are therefore requesting the HES data so that they can assess completeness and coding and make adjustments for these factors if required. 5. Data is required for all patients as the effects of tobacco/alcohol are not limited to a particular demographic group. Currently, the University requires data on inpatient admissions for young children for analysis for the Royal College of Physicians upcoming report. One component of the work for this report is to estimate the costs to the NHS that arise through the hospital admissions of mothers and children for conditions (such as for children birth defects or asthma). In general, the University anticipates that the programme of work will involve analysis of effects on the health of children e.g. the investigation of the potential effects of exposure to second-hand smoke. Data preparation --- The University apply basic data processing functions e.g. removal of duplicate records etc. To prepare for processing activities that are specific to particular projects, the pseudonymised data is first aggregated in rates of hospital admissions for specific ICD-10 code categories for specific population subgroups. Project-specific processing activities === The University’s analyses are split between investigations of retrospective trends and prospective estimation of potential policy effects: How different new policies/interventions might affect several outcomes, including hospital admissions and associated costs, over and above the continuation of past trends. The University has 1 current project (as at September 2017) that is investigating past trends: Comprehensive evaluation of the impact of nine years of English tobacco control policy. Using external data on trends in tobacco consumption in relation to policy, and published risk functions, The University will estimate the extent to which past trends can be attributed to variation in tobacco consumption. The University has 6 current projects (as at September 2017) looking at prospective effects of tobacco/alcohol policy: 1. Development of joint alcohol and tobacco policy modelling. 2. Royal College of Physicians report on improving delivery of smoking interventions in the NHS. 3. Appraising the effect of implementing local Minimum Unit Pricing 4. Helping people cope with temptations to smoke to reduce relapse 5. Joint appraisal of tobacco and alcohol tax interventions 6. Exploring the impact of Public Health engagement in alcohol licensing The data on hospital admissions and associated costs will form 10-20% of the evidence that University of Sheffield use to generate policy-relevant outcomes from these new models that aim to answer the question of what might be the effects of proposed changes to the alcohol and/or tobacco policy strategy? Using the data requested, the University will select the set of ICD-10 codes attributable to alcohol and tobacco, aggregate these into rates by population subgroup, and use these rates as the baseline in the University of Sheffield model. The model will translate the estimated effects of policy on tobacco and/or alcohol consumption to outcomes in terms of the hospital admissions and associated costs that might be prevented.

Objectives:

Summary of programme of work === The data provided are used for an on-going programme of work at The University of Sheffield (“The University”) to develop public health economic models for policymaker decision support in the fields of alcohol and tobacco control. The work is entirely for public benefit and not for private commercial gain. That programme of work includes several research projects, some of which have their own associated funding. Only University of Sheffield employees process or otherwise access the data. An ethics approval for the programme of work was given by School of Health and Related Research at The University (ref 004422). The University obtain further ethics approvals for funded research projects that fall within their general programme of work as required. The University of Sheffield’s programme of work began with the development of the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model (SAPM), which has been developed over 9 years by a large multidisciplinary team and funded to the tune of several million pounds. It has informed strategic thinking across policy options that target alcohol related harms at national and local authority levels, understanding socio-economic differentials in consumption, in the burden of ill-health and associated costs. The University is in the process of using the HES data to develop modelling work that focuses on smoking only, and on alcohol and smoking jointly. Objectives of the programme of work === The University of Sheffield’s programme of work includes 1) understanding past trends, and 2) forecasting to estimate the potential effects of new policy or interventions. This work is being conducted at a range of geographic scales, including national and local authority level. Note that the work tends to consider a range of outcomes of which hospital admissions and costs are a part. Objective One --- To investigate past trends in alcohol and/or smoking related hospital admissions and costs. The data will also be used to investigate past policy effects on hospital admissions and associated costs. Objective Two --- To investigate the potential future effects on hospitalisations and costs of proposed changes to alcohol and/or tobacco policy. The University typically use the most recent years of data to inform the baseline rates of hospitalisations. They then update these rates according to estimate policy effects and project the outcomes over around 30 years. Programme-level funding === The UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies (UKCTAS) (website: http://ukctas.net/ ) is a network of thirteen universities (12 in the UK, 1 in New Zealand) funded by the UK Clinical Research Collaboration. The UKCTAS aims to deliver an international research and policy development portfolio, and build capacity in tobacco and alcohol research. It is not linked to the tobacco or alcohol industry; research is conducted without industry funding or influence. Neither is it a lobbying group, but UKCTAS does have close links with advocacy organisations and will assist them where appropriate. The funding from UKCTAS is used to provide a full-time research associate at the University of Sheffield. All projects using HES data must have a UK focus. No data (other than aggregated, with small numbers suppressed in line with the HES Analysis Guide) will be shared with any 3rd party, including funding organisations. Current projects under the programme of work === No funder influences the outputs in any way. The funders do not receive anything except regular reporting on project progress and association with published articles/reports. For removal of doubt, these outputs will never contain patient data and at the bare minimum will only consist of aggregated data with small numbers suppression (in line with the HES Analysis Guide). 1. UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies (UKCTAS). Funding is provided to contribute health economic evaluations to projects within the centre. These projects might not have their own dedicated funding. In addition, this funding has been used to support the extension of The University of Sheffield’s alcohol modelling to tobacco. 2. Royal College of Physicians report on improving delivery of smoking interventions in the NHS. This project does not have its own source of funding – it is supported by the above UKCTAS funding. The HES data will be used as part of The University’s estimation of the healthcare costs of common diseases caused or exacerbated by smoking. The University will also use HES data to estimate the savings released by funding comprehensive smoking cessation services, with time frames. 3. NIHR Public Health Research Project 15/129/19 (www.journalslibrary.nihr.ac.uk/programmes/phr/1512919/#/) – Appraising the effect of implementing local Minimum Unit Pricing under the Sustainable Communities Act on alcohol consumption and health in the North West of England. Under MUP, the price at which alcohol can be sold is linked to the amount of pure alcohol (e.g. under a MUP of 50p per alcohol unit, a bottle of wine containing 10 units could not be sold for less than £5). The University will use HES data in the appraisal of the potential long-term health economic effects of this policy. The work will provide evidence about the likely scale of impact of MUP in the NW region. The Local Authorities, with whom The University have engaged in developing this bid, plan to use this to make a submission under the Sustainable Communities Act. 4. Department of Health Policy Research Programme PR-R14-1215-24001 - A comprehensive evaluation of the impact of nine years of English tobacco control policy using secondary data. The aim of the proposed research is to provide policy makers with evidence on the short, medium and long-term impact of recent tobacco control policies implemented in England, and to develop an innovative method to aid stakeholders in monitoring and assessing changes in the tobacco control landscape. The University will use HES data in estimating the long-term impact of the statistically identified effects of interventions on health and healthcare costs. 5. NIHR Health Technology Assessment Programme 13/155/05 - Helping people cope with temptations to smoke to reduce relapse: A factorial randomised controlled trial. The project will test whether providing an additional nicotine product and/or a structured planning intervention to people who have quit for 4 weeks reduces relapse at a year by comparing the rate of relapse between 1 and 12 months in those who received each RPI with those who did not. The University will use HES data in conducting the long-term health economic evaluation of to establish whether RPI provide acceptable returns for their costs in terms of long-term cost savings to the NHS and health benefits to the population. 6. NIHR Public Health Research Programme 16/105/26 - Integrated evidence synthesis for joint appraisal of tobacco and alcohol tax interventions for harm reduction in the UK. The project will investigate how tobacco and alcohol taxation can be changed to improve health for all. We will talk with consumers, policymakers and experts and use survey and sales data to look at how tobacco and alcohol tax can work together: to change consumer behaviour and health; to benefit disadvantaged communities; and reduce NHS costs at a time of limited budgets. The University will use HES data in estimating the long-term impact of a range of alternative tax options for tobacco and alcohol on health and healthcare costs. 7. NIHR Public Health Research Programme 15/129/11 – Exploring the impact of alcohol licensing in England and Scotland. The aim of the project is to map the extent to which Public Health teams in a sample of Local Authorities in England and Scotland are engaging with the process of alcohol licensing and the nature of that engagement and to estimate the impact of that engagement on health and crime outcomes. The University will use HES data in estimating the scale and distribution of effects of this engagement across the population.


Project 5 — DARS-NIC-378491-R6K9Y

Opt outs honoured: N

Sensitive: Non Sensitive

When: 2016/04 (or before) — 2016/08.

Repeats: One-Off

Legal basis: Health and Social Care Act 2012, Section 42(4) of the Statistics and Registration Service Act (2007) as amended by section 287 of the Health and Social Care Act (2012)

Categories: Anonymised - ICO code compliant, Identifiable

Datasets:

  • Hospital Episode Statistics Accident and Emergency
  • Hospital Episode Statistics Admitted Patient Care
  • Hospital Episode Statistics Critical Care
  • Office for National Statistics Mortality Data (linkable to HES)

Benefits:

This will demonstrate the benefits and cost savings of RTNs to the NHS and provide evidence to support the implementation of RTNs in other areas, for example Northern Ireland. It is anticipated that the information will be evaluative in terms of identifying the degree to which the cost effectiveness of trauma care has changed over the period of RTN implementation. If cost effectiveness at the NICE threshold is not achieved this will highlight a need for action to NHS England. It is unlikely RTN’s will be abandoned unless case fatality is worse and there is already evidence from TARN that this is unlikely. The modelling may indicate differences between regions although direct comparisons are difficult to make as some RTNs were only fully implemented in 2014. If there is a wide disparity between regions who implemented at the same time then this will be explored to the level of determining whether variation in clinical outcomes, or cost, explain discrepancies. This has the potential to highlight good practice to lead clinicians and decision-makers at NHS England. The target date will be to approximately 6 months after receiving the data for the report with the target audience being policy makers at NHS England. The target audience for the open access peer review article will be clinicians and managers involved in trauma care in the NHS with possible journals including the BMJ or the Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery

Outputs:

Information will be used to populate an economic model on the cost-effectiveness of RTNs. Model outputs will include: incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, costs of running trauma networks and quality adjusted life years, expected number of additional survivors from RTNs, total number of trauma cases and number of deaths. The model will be run over 10,000 simulations and the mean result with confidence intervals will be reported. Other outputs will include a cost-effectiveness plane and cost-effectiveness acceptability curve for model results. This will be completed six months after receipt of data from HSCIC. In statistical analysis and health economic analysis there is uncertainty around summary estimates, typically reported with standard deviations or confidence intervals. In economic evaluations a number of parameters contribute towards cost-effectiveness analysis e.g. costs, survival, quality of life and each of these has uncertainty around it. Generally, all uncertainties can be accounted for simultaneously in a cost-effectiveness model by assigning (statistical/mathematical) distributions (e.g. the normal distribution) around the information that is included in the model and use computer simulations to account for the uncertainty. The economic model built at the University of Sheffield for the previous work uses computer simulations to account for the uncertainty. The University have previously produced a paper in 2011 looking at the cost-effectiveness of RTNs.

Processing:

Data will be accessed for the purposes of providing model parameters for mortality and costs for a cost-effectiveness model of RTNs. Data will be inputted into the cost-effectiveness model at an aggregate level e.g. mortality from trauma across England. The cost-effectiveness model is a mathematical/statistical model that uses a simulation technique to estimate the cost-effectiveness of regional trauma networks based on a set of parameters. In the case of the trauma networks these are number or survivors, number of deaths, mean cost. There will be no sharing with third parties. Any small numbers will be suppressed in line with the HES Analysis Guide.

Objectives:

In 2009 the University of Manchester was commissioned by the Department of Health to evaluate the expected cost effectiveness of regional trauma networks (RTNs) prior to their implementation using published data and information from long-term follow-up of seriously injured patients. This work was subsequently sub-contracted to the University of Sheffield, and the University of Manchester will not have access to the data. The aim of this initial study was to estimate the expected costs and consequences of regional trauma systems with a view to implementing them across England and Wales should they be shown to be cost-effective. When estimating the expected cost-effectiveness of regional systems it was necessary to make a number of assumptions about the system owing to the sparse reported evidence on trauma systems at the time. However, it was felt that there was sufficient evidence to recommend the implementation of regional trauma systems. NHS England want to evaluate regional trauma networks and HES-ONS data would be used to update mortality estimates which are the number of trauma cases per year and cost (resources) in the period up to discharge from hospital following a trauma incident. Data from long-term follow-up of serious injuries and Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) data will be used to populate other parameters in the model. No data linkage will be made between HES, TARN and long-term follow-up data. TARN includes patients who arrive at hospital alive after injury and subsequently fulfil one of the following criteria: (i) Death in hospital during the acute phase (ii) initial spell of care > 72hours (iii) requires High-Dependency Unit (HDU) or Intensive Care Unit (ICU) care (iv) Requires an interhospital transfer for acute care The aim is to run cost effectiveness models comparing the period prior to trauma networks existing, during the set up phase and after implementation of trauma networks for the whole of England and separately for each trauma network. Information will be used to update model parameters in the cost-effectiveness model and reported as overall number of cases, mortality or overall cost for trauma networks across England or per trauma network for each of the periods described.


Project 6 — DARS-NIC-384618-N1H4Y

Opt outs honoured: Y

Sensitive: Sensitive

When: 2016/12 — 2017/11.

Repeats: Ongoing

Legal basis: Section 251 approval is in place for the flow of identifiable data

Categories: Identifiable

Datasets:

  • MRIS - Flagging Current Status Report
  • MRIS - Cohort Event Notification Report

Benefits:

The initial outputs from NHS Digital will allow the University to approach the families from the MERIDIAN study and obtain renewed consent to complete the follow up study. The outputs are important to ensure that there is no contact with the family of a deceased child which may cause emotional upset and distress to the family. The results and associated outputs of the overall study will provide an updated diagnostic accuracy assessment based on longer term follow up and additional prognostic information which will help clinicians when counselling women and their families during pregnancy. The results will allow the University to have a better understanding of brain abnormalities detected antenatally and how they may affect a child’s long term development, which is extremely important to clinicians and families. The study will benefit pregnant women in the future who have been told that their baby might have a problem with their brain development. It is anticipated that this study will improve understanding for both parents and health professionals. The results will therefore allow the production of improved information leaflets aimed at pregnant women and their families to help them understand the screening process and the impact of the potential brain abnormality on the child’s development and the prognosis for the child. The findings will also be made available on the study website which is easily accessible to ensure that wide range of audiences are reached. This information is expected to be available to health professionals and the public from August 2017.

Outputs:

The study findings will be published in journals and presented at research conferences. Findings will be made available through the study website. The UoS will also use the information to design better information leaflet to parents. Outputs will be available to clinicians, academics and the public. Outputs are expected from August 2017. The final Health Technology Assessment (HTA) report will be due December 2017. Multidisciplinary and general medical journals, such as The Lancet will be the target of the outputs as the results of the study will be of interest to a wide range of clinicians (foetal medicine, radiology, neonatology, paediatrics, pathology, clinical genetics and health service providers). Foetal medicine and neonatology conferences will be targeted for dissemination of the research findings.

Processing:

Once the research team at the UoS has received the data from the NHS Digital, it will be stored on the University secure network drive in a restricted access folder. The data will also be imported in to the study propsect database. The database is username and password protected. The information will be linked with the study information (mother's name, child's name, date of birth) already held (with consent) for this participant using the unique study identifier. See below an overview of the data flow: (1) Eligible participants from MERIDIAN who have consented to be approached about further research are identified through the MERIDIAN database and through a consent form audit (2) The date of birth and NHS number of the child/children born during the MERIDIAN study will be sent by the UoS research team to NHS Digital, including the unique study participant identifier (3) Data provided to be linked by NHS Digital to the Mortality Data Patient Tracking system (4) Information returned to the research team at the UoS, using the unique study identifier, regarding fact of death where applicable (other identifiable information will be removed) (5) Once received by the UoS the MERIDIAN database will be updated accordingly. No contact will be made with any families whose child is identified as no longer being alive The data will be stored and processed within Clinical Trials Unit, School of Health and Related Research at the UoS. The pseudonymised data will also be accessible by the study chief investigator and appropriate members of the research team in the Academic Unit of Radiology, UoS. There will be a requirement for the collaborating consultant neonatologist at the Newcastle upon Tyne NHS Foundation Trust to access the fact of death information to ensure that the child's family is not contacted to participate in the study as part of the screening process. The fact of death will be entered directly onto a secure area of the MERIDIAN database which will have restricted access.

Objectives:

The objective for receiving this data is to determine whether or not to approach the current study cohort (with the intention to re-consent for the follow-up study) and to refine the estimates of diagnostic accuracy made in the original MERIDIAN study. In order to re-consent the cohort for the follow-up study, the University of Sheffield (UoS) first wish to identify whether the child is still alive before making contact with the family, to avoid any emotional distress or upset. Section 251 approval has been given for this purpose. If the data shows that the child is no longer alive, no contact will be made with the family. The study already has consent from the cohort to be approached about future research regarding their child’s development. The cohort are part of the MERIDIAN study (HTA 09-06-01) which is the largest iuMR study to date and assessed the diagnostic accuracy of in utero magnetic resonance (iuMR) imaging and ultrasound for the detection of fetal brain abnormalities. The MERIDIAN 2-3 year follow up study will incorporate additional follow-up of its participants, specifically: i) to incorporate longer term outcomes observed over the first 2-3 years of life, and ii) to undertake a detailed neurodevelopmental assessment of infants. It will recruit participants from the MERIDIAN cohort when the children are aged 2-3 years old. The study will update and refine the estimates of diagnostic accuracy from the original study using clinical data which is available when the children are aged 2-3 years. In addition the study will explore the functional development of the children which will be used to assess the prognostic capabilities of iuMR and ultrasound (US).


Project 7 — DARS-NIC-392342-C3Y7R

Opt outs honoured: Y

Sensitive: Sensitive

When: 2016/09 — 2016/11.

Repeats: One-Off

Legal basis: Section 42(4) of the Statistics and Registration Service Act (2007) as amended by section 287 of the Health and Social Care Act (2012)

Categories: Identifiable

Datasets:

  • Office for National Statistics Mortality Data

Benefits:

The current evidence base regarding ED closures is lacking. The expected output (and therefore benefit) of this study is to produce robust information about a series of indicators which can measure the effect of an ED closure on a local population, and emergency care providers, and therefore has the potential to inform future decisions about which EDs are selected for closure. These indicators may be transferable to other evaluations concerning the emergency and urgent care system, and may be particularly transferable to any evaluation of the re-defining of A&E care, proposed as part of the current review of emergency and urgent care services. The expected impact of this study is to inform the re-organisation of emergency care in England by providing the general public, the NHS, and policymakers with the evidence to enable them to make informed decisions. As such, there is no specific target date when measurable benefits will be apparent: benefits from the study will be applicable in relation to any proposed closure following the publication of our findings. However, given that further closures/downgrades are currently planned or under consideration it is likely that our findings will be considered in the context of closures immediately after publication of our results (i.e. within 12 months of the publication of findings). In summary, the expected benefits are the production of a set of accurate, reliable, and credible indicators which can measure the effect of an ED closure (‘what’), and can be used by local populations and the healthcare community (‘whom’) when faced with decision making about potential ED closures (‘when’).

Outputs:

The data will be used to produce outputs for academic conferences and journal articles in peer reviewed health-related journals. Examples of journals the University of Sheffield will seek to publish their work in include the British Medical Journal and the Emergency Medicine Journal. The University of Sheffield will seek to publish ‘open access’ articles, therefore allowing their findings to be freely available. The University of Sheffield plan to submit conference abstracts to annual conferences organised by the Health Service Research Network and the Royal College of Emergency Medicine. Such conferences are generally attended by researchers, healthcare providers/commissioners, and patient and public groups. The funding body also requires the submission of a final research report, which the funder will make publicly available via their website. Outputs are expected to be 'in print' in 2017. All outputs will only contain results in aggregated format and as statistical summaries. It is likely that for each of the 17 indicators, summary tables/graphs will be produced in the intended outputs. Any re-organisation of healthcare will impact on the wider local health community, and it is important that findings are shared to enable commissioners and providers to build the findings into any future re-organisation, if appropriate. To date, the University of Sheffield have not actively publicised the study in local areas given the sensitivities around ED closures. However, information about the study is publicly available on the NIHR’s website. The University of Sheffield have been contacted by a local provider in one of their sites, offering support if needed. Once in receipt of the data and once the study is in progress the University of Sheffield intends to publicise the study within local health communities affected by closures, and at a national level with relevant organisations (e.g. NHS England, Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, College of Paramedics, Royal College of Emergency Medicine, and Healthwatch). Communication will take the form of written summaries produced to introduce the study, and reporting the results from the study. The University of Sheffield will also make themselves available to attend meetings of these groups to communicate their findings. In addition the University of Sheffield intend to hold a public event in each of the five areas affected by the closures, disseminating the findings. The event will be open to the public. Local commissioners and providers will be invited to these public events, planned to take place following publication of the final report to the funder. Events are likely to take place mid 2017, but this will be dependent on the NIHR publication date of the final report.

Processing:

To enable analysis, five control EDs will also be selected. There are a number of stages involved in creating the outputs: Stage 1: calculation of catchment populations In the first instance, a resident catchment population will be identified for each target ED (both intervention and control). Catchment populations will be identified from Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) Accident & Emergency (A&E) attendance/ and (or) Ambulance Service CAD data and will be defined as the lower super output areas of residence from which the majority of attenders at any ED during the study period, used the target ED. Stage 2: Calculation of indicators The next stage of processing will be the use of routine data, to produce a series of population and emergency care indicators for each resident catchment population. In total there will be 17 indicators relating to ‘death’ and ‘risk of death’, ‘A&E attendances’, ‘emergency hospital admissions’, ‘condition severity’, and ‘ambulance service performance’. Data will be drawn from Office for National Statistics*, HES A&E attendance, HES Admitted Patient Care, and NHS Ambulance Service Computer Aided Despatch datasets. Data from NHS Ambulance Services will be drawn directly from each NHS Ambulance Service Trust and will not be linked to any other dataset. The information below describes each indicator in detail (all numbers and proportions, etc. relate to residents of the catchment areas) and identifies the data source required. Data source - ONS mortality data and HES-ONS linked mortality data • The number of deaths from conditions (as identified by ICD code) identified as rich in avoidable deaths • Case fatality ratio for conditions (as identified by ICD code) identified as rich in avoidable deaths For patients in the University of Sheffield’s HES APC data who also hold a ONS Mortality deceased flag, the ONS Mortality Date of Death (along with encrypted HESID) will be linked to Date of Admission (HES Admitted Patient Care) to derive vital status after 3, 7 and 30 days, and Month and year if the calculation exceeds 30 days, by calculating the days lapsed from Date of Admission to Date of Death. For those patients that hold a ONS Mortality status but do not appear in the HES APC dataset, only month and year of death will be derived. The ONS Mortality database (with full Date of Death) will be stored separately and unlinked and a updated ONS Mortality database with the derived vital status details (and for removal of doubt, does not contain full Date of Death) will be linked to the HES data. Data source - HES Accident & Emergency attendance • Total ED attendances • Total ED attendances by mode of arrival (i.e. by patients brought in by ambulance and those identified as having an ‘other’ mode of arrival) • The number of arrivals at ED discharged without treatment or investigations(s) that required hospital facilities. • The proportion of attenders at ED who are admitted to an inpatient bed Data source - HES Admitted Patient Care • The number of emergency hospital admissions for any condition • The number of emergency hospital admissions for conditions (as identified by ICD code) identified as rich in ‘avoidable admissions’ • Mean length of stay in hospital for those admitted as emergencies • The numbers and proportions admitted to critical care medicine Data source - Ambulance service CAD data • Mean time from 999 call to ambulance on scene, • Mean time from ambulance arriving on scene to ambulance arriving at hospital • Mean time to hospital from time of 999 call • Mean time from ambulance arriving at hospital to ambulance ‘clear’ time • Total ambulance service call volumes • Non conveyance rates • The number of emergency hospital transfers between local hospitals Stage 3: Primary analysis For all the indicators, data will be analysed using a time series of monthly values (for a minimum of 48 months spanning the closure or downgrading of the ED). A simple time series will be fitted to the data including a linear time trend, a seasonal effect, step interruptions for any other major changes to the local emergency care system, and a step interruption at the time of the change to the ED. Control series will also be used. The control catchment areas will be for populations in similar areas not expected to be affected by the closures either directly (as a result of ED attendances being diverted) or indirectly (via any impact on the ambulance service). Analyses will estimate the step in the intervention series, and the difference in the step between the intervention series and the control series. The University of Sheffield will use the estimate of the size of any step to estimate the impact on the indicators following the closure of the ED. Data processing The data will be processed and analysed within a single department, the School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR) within the University of Sheffield. The data will not, in any circumstances, be released to a third party. The data will be accessed by a restricted number of authorised individuals within the study team by use of a networked project folder which will be password protected. Access to the data requires authentication (username and password) on the university network; further and distinct authentication (distinct username and password belonging to specific user accounts and from specific on-site machines - sited in locked rooms - only) on a specific "virtual machine". This virtual machine is the only "entity" from which intelligible access to the data is possible. Specific user accounts allowing access to the data requested on the ‘virtual machine' are only granted to members of the study team, who are employees of University of Sheffield. Authorisation to the specific project system folder will be given to a strictly limited number of individuals. All these individuals work within the same department (ScHARR) at the University of Sheffield and are subject to confidentiality policies of the University of Sheffield. The data will be cleaned and analysed by the data manager and statisticians who have experience in dealing with large datasets of routine data. The dataset will then be analysed by the statisticians in line with the aims of the study detailed in the study protocol that was approved by the University of Sheffield Ethics. The calculated data will be reported to the team members in the form of a report detailing the aggregated results in line with the HES analysis guide. The study will take 21 months to complete. The data extracts from the datasets will be removed from the network folder and destroyed three years after receipt from NHS Digital, which will allow the University of Sheffield time to complete the study dissemination period.

Objectives:

The University of Sheffield has been awarded funding by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) to identify the impact of closing Emergency Departments (ED) in England. The mission statement of NIHR is to “maintain a health research system in which the NHS supports outstanding individuals, working in world-class facilities, conducting leading-edge research focused on the needs of patients and public”. The study was funded following a researcher led call from the Health Services and Delivery Research (HS&DR) Programme. Prior to the award being given, this study was reviewed by a HS&DR funding panel, external reviewers, and the HS&DR commissioning board. In recent years a small number of EDs in England have closed for all or part of the day, usually because it has not been viable to provide senior cover 24/7. This is set against a period of increasing demand for emergency care in terms of rising ED attendances and NHS ambulance calls. This research will therefore focus on a key area of current health service re-organisation in the UK, addressing a highly topical and important question. There is considerable controversy in relation to the reconfiguration, and closure of EDs. Closing EDs is not viewed positively by the public and patients, as demonstrated by campaign groups which have formed to prevent these closures. However, closures may not have the negative impact on patient outcomes that campaign groups suggest. Evidence on the effects of ED closures is essential to inform public debate and policy given that further closures are planned. In recent years a number of Emergency Departments (EDs) have closed, or been replaced by another facility such as an Urgent Care Centre. Currently, there is little research evidence to inform decision making about these closures. This study will look to identify if local populations and emergency care providers are affected by such closures, focusing on five EDs which closed between 2009 and 2011. The University of Sheffield has been awarded funding to identify the impact of closing Emergency Departments (ED) in England. Five EDs which closed (or were downgraded) between 2009 and 2011 will be the focus of the analysis. The purposes of the analysis are the following: - To identify any changes in the pattern of mortality in the local population following closures - To identify any changes in local emergency care service activity, and performance following closures The University of Sheffield has requested pseudonymised data sets with the exception of Date of Death via ONS Mortality. The data will be analysed and the analysis presented in research reports, peer reviewed journals and at academic conferences. All dissemination activity will report aggregated results across patient episodes and not individual patient episodes. In any reports, small numbers will be suppressed in line with the HES Analysis Guide. All reasonable steps in processing will be taken to avoid re-identification of deceased patients from within the HES data. The full Date of Death will be used to derive vital status after 3, 7 and 30 days and month of death only. There is no other requirement for Date of Death apart from the derived vital status outputs listed. For the purpose of producing these derivations only Date of Admission from the HES data will be required so therefore there is no requirement for Date of Death to be linked with the HES data. Date of Death (full) will not be linked to the HES data and the two will not be stored in a database as linked data. Date of Admission (HES) will be the only field linked to Date of Death (ONS Mortality). The dataset itself will not be released to any third party, including other staff within the University of Sheffield.


Project 8 — DARS-NIC-62448-Z8K5T

Opt outs honoured: N

Sensitive: Non Sensitive

When: 2017/12 — 2018/02.

Repeats: One-Off

Legal basis: Health and Social Care Act 2012

Categories: Anonymised - ICO code compliant

Datasets:

  • Hospital Episode Statistics Admitted Patient Care
  • Hospital Episode Statistics Accident and Emergency
  • Hospital Episode Statistics Critical Care

Benefits:

Previously, the introduction of the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Guidelines for TBI management in 2003 was associated with a 12% reduction in TBI mortality. These guidelines were around improved access to imaging for early diagnosis of TBI as well as improved access to specialist neuroscience care for TBI. However, there have been no new therapies for TBI in the last 30 years. It is therefore reasonable to expect to realise similar benefits at the end of the CENTER-TBI project when the research team has achieved an improved understanding of the most complex disease in the most complex organ (TBI) and further identified new therapies through this comparative effectiveness research in addition to the current guidelines by NICE. A cascade of benefits will follow the dissemination of findings from this research. For example, the findings should inform the next update of the NICE Head Injury Guidance. This would improve commissioning and provision of TBI care as well as assisting policy makers in the UK such as the Department of Health to make informed decisions about TBI prevention that will improve the health of the UK populace. It shall also serve as a guide for best practice among clinicians in treating TBI patients across the UK and Europe. Another benefit of the outputs created from NHS Digital data will be improved TBI characterisation and stratification which will allow for more personalised, targeted and effective therapies, thereby improving UK patient outcomes after TBI and ultimately reduce healthcare costs. CENTER-TBI is a generational opportunity to improve Traumatic Brain Injury care. TBI is the commonest cause of deaths in hospital trauma attendances; hence, University of Sheffield would anticipate the findings to save approximately 20,000 EU lives per annum in a predominately economically active population by year 2020 as well as reduce disability in survivors.

Outputs:

The HES data obtained from NHS Digital will only be used for the CENTER-TBI registry work package in order to report the external validity of the CENTER-TBI core study population in the United Kingdom. Progress Reports of interim results will be provided to the CENTER-TBI reporting team in April 2018. The final report of results will be submitted to the European Commission in October 2018. This will cover all findings of the study including a detailed assessment of the external validity of the CENTER-TBI core population and any likely biases in terms of demography and injury characteristics. Charts and tables will show the disease characterisation and comparative effectiveness analyses obtained from the core study in Europe. Once finalised, this will be submitted for publication in the Lancet Neurology or The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) with an estimated publication date of December 2018. These are open access, peer-reviewed journals. Research results will be integrated with living systematic reviews of TBI care. This means that high quality, up-to-date summaries of this research will be updated as new evidence becomes available. In order to ensure knowledge transfer and bridge the evidence to practice gap, results of this research shall be disseminated at various levels: 1. CENTER-TBI is embedded within the framework of the International Initiative on TBI Research (InTBIR), a collaboration of the European Commission (EC), the Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR) and the National Institute of Health (NIH). Therefore dissemination to policy makers in the UK, Europe and the rest of the world would be in form of a published report at the end of the project presented to InTBIR, 2. Dissemination to healthcare professionals in the UK and all over the world would be at scientific conferences including the International Brain Injury Association (IBIA) meeting, International Conference on Emergency Medicine and European Congress on Emergency Medicine. The research from the work package will be published in high impact journals such as “The Lancet Neurology”, by open access to enable wide dissemination and access. 3. Dissemination to patients will be through: • The Centre for Urgent and emergency care REsearch (CURE), School of Health and Related Research, The University of Sheffield which is strongly linked in with the Sheffield Emergency Care Forum, a patient-public Involvement (PPI) group which aims to make emergency care research accessible to the public • Headway, a UK-charity that provides support, services and information to brain injury survivors, their families and carers, as well as to professionals in the health and legal fields. Findings in form of data summaries will also be disseminated in the UK through TARN (Trauma Audit Research Network). A simplified version of the findings will be disseminated to the work package collaborators: 1. German Trauma Registry, Germany 2. Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) (Copenhagen and UK) 3. National Healthcare Service Center (AEEK), Hungary 4. Centre for Disease Prevention & Control, Latvia 5. Institute of Hygiene, Health Information Centre of Institute of Hygiene, Lithuania 6. Paediatric Tertiary Trauma Center, Vilnius University Children’s Hospital, Vilnius, Lithuania 7. Consumer Safety Institute (VeiligheidNL) Netherlands. 8. Swedish Trauma Registry, Sweden 9. Norway Trauma Registry, Norway 10. NHS Digital Data Access Request Service, UK 11. Federal Public Service Health, food chain safety, environment, Belgium 12. Ministerio de Sanidad, Servicios Sociales e Igualdad. Instituto de Información Sanitaria. Registro de altas – CMBD, Spain 13. European Association for Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion (EuroSafe), A short presentation/abstract will be developed to summarise the findings for a range of stakeholders, including; healthcare professionals, patient groups and/policy makers at the General Assembly of CENTER-TBI, International Brain Injury Association (IBIA) meeting and International Conference on Emergency Medicine and European Congress on Emergency Medicine. Findings will also be presented at the Centre for Urgent and emergency care REsearch (CURE) group meeting, School of Health and Related Research, The University of Sheffield in December 2018. Dissemination of results of analysed data will be written into reports such as the EU commission Scientific Work package progress Report and CENTER-TBI External validity Report. External validation results shall also be disseminated at conferences such as the International Brain Injury Association World congress On Brain Injury 2018 and in high impact factor journals such as The Lancet Neurology, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). There will neither be any requirement nor attempt to identify individuals from the data obtained from NHS Digital. Also, data will not be made available to any third parties except in form of aggregated outputs with small numbers suppressed in line with the HES Analysis Guide. The CENTER-TBI website will provide links to the open access papers . All outputs will contain only data that is aggregated with small numbers suppressed in line with the HES Analysis Guide.

Processing:

In addition to pseudonymised HES data supplied by NHS Digital, pseudonymised routine raw TBI data/data summaries will be supplied to the Centre for Urgent and Emergency Care Research (CURE), School of Health and Related Research, The University of Sheffield by 13 European organisations namely: 1. German Trauma Registry, Germany 2. Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) (Copenhagen and UK) 3. National Healthcare Service Center (AEEK), Hungary 4. Centre for Disease Prevention & Control, Latvia 5. Institute of Hygiene, Health Information Centre of Institute of Hygiene, Lithuania 6. Paediatric Tertiary Trauma Center, Vilnius University Children’s Hospital, Vilnius, Lithuania 7. Consumer Safety Institute (VeiligheidNL) Netherlands. 8. Swedish Trauma Registry, Sweden 9. Norway Trauma Registry, Norway 10. NHS Digital Data Access Request Service, UK 11. Federal Public Service Health, food chain safety, environment, Belgium 12. Ministerio de Sanidad, Servicios Sociales e Igualdad. Instituto de Información Sanitaria. Registro de altas – CMBD, Spain 13. European Association for Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion (EuroSafe), for the periods of 2015/2016 and 2016/2017 to enable comparisons with the core study in each country which is simultaneously collecting data for these periods. External validation analysis would be carried out separately for each country to assess the generalisablity of the core study population in that particular country. Only the Centre for Urgent and Emergency Care Research (CURE), School of Health and Related Research, The University of Sheffield has been commissioned to undertake this external validation work in the CENTER-TBI project. UK TBI data will be required from NHS Digital (from HES) only for the CENTRE-TBI registry work package ,in order to assess the representativeness of the CENTER-TBI core study in the UK. Without using national data, it is not possible to guarantee that the selected CENTER TBI core UK patients sample are accurately representative of the United Kingdom TBI patients and, without this certainty, the analysis would be weakened and the findings less credible. Given the potential impact of the findings on TBI on patients, healthcare and policy, it is essential to minimise uncertainty. Therefore, data obtained from NHS Digital will used for this purpose without linking it to any other data. The NHS Digital data will only be used for the CENTRE-TBI registry work package. Comparisons will be done with regards to age, gender, mechanism of injury, severity of TBI, treatment and outcome differentiated per stratum. The strata of patients are TBI patients hospitalised as a result of acute injury (<24hours prior to hospital attendance) and patients who attend and are discharged from the Emergency Department (not admitted) with TBI codes but a negative CT brain scan. Hence, Hospital Episode Statistics Admitted Patient Care, Critical Care and Accident and Emergency data is requested; specifically Traumatic Brain Injury ICD codes. Only the Center for Urgent and Emergency Care Research (CURE) within the School of Health and Related Research, The University of Sheffield, UK will have access to the record level data supplied by NHS digital. Data security and access to data Data obtained from NHS Digital and other sources will be stored on a secure drive at the School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield. Authorisation to the specific project system folder will be given strictly to the work package team. The work package team consists fully of substantive employees of the University of Sheffield (with no staff on honorary contracts in the team) and are subject to the University of Sheffield Information Security Policies. This includes complying with the Data Protection Act 1998 and a legal requirement to not pass any data (personal or other) to a 3rd party, unless required by law or statutory obligation. Data provided by NHS Digital will not be considered as being “Center-TBI Data”, and will not be shared with any third party. Any outputs from the analysis of NHS Digital data must be aggregated in nature, with small numbers suppressed in line with the HES Analysis Guide. Simple cross tabulations and confidence intervals will be generated for age and gender variables. Comparison will be made between the core and the external registry of the same country within the same stratum using the statistical software to execute the external validation of the core CENTER-TBI study. For example: The UK core study population will be compared to the TBI population in the HES and TARN data. Consideration will be made concerning the appropriate use of statistical tests to determine statistical significance of the comparisons for each country. Hence, the generalisability of the core study population will be determined in the UK and across Europe. Furthermore, effective clinical care of Traumatic Brain Injury can be identified. All organisations party to this agreement must comply with the Data Sharing Framework Contract requirements, including those regarding the use (and purposes of that use) by “Personnel” (as defined within the Data Sharing Framework Contract ie: employees, agents and contractors of the Data Recipient who may have access to that data).

Objectives:

The data obtained from DARS (NHS digital) shall be processed solely for the CENTER-TBI registry work package (17). The CENTER-TBI study consists of 20 workpackages . The overall aims of the whole CENTER - TBI study are: - To improve characterization and classification of TBI in Europe, with inclusion of emerging technologies. - To identify the most effective clinical care and to provide high quality evidence in support of treatment recommendations and guidelines. In summary, the core study will be recruiting TBI patients across Europe to collect high-quality clinical and epidemiological data with repositories for neuro-imaging, DNA and serum from patients with TBI in order to improve TBI characterisation and identify the most effective TBI treatments, The CENTER-TBI core study will be making comparisons in treatments and interventions across 80 centres and 21 countries. This approach is called Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER). Therefore, data shall be collected from these European centres to enable CER analyses of differences in clinical care and management pathways in TBI. A total of 5400 TBI patients will be recruited from acute hospitals; the emergency department, in-patient wards and intensive care. Data and blood samples will be collected but in some cases a non-invasive scan of the brain (MRI scan) will be done. Patients will be followed up for up to 2 years. Patients with a clinical indication for CT scan who present to the hospital within 24 hours of TBI injury shall be recruited to participate following consent. Follow-up will include questionnaires, repeat MRI scans (if done), blood samples and computer based tests of cognitive processes (CANTAB). However, data from NHS Digital will not be utilised for this part of the project. The specific aims of the whole CENTER TBI study are - To collect high-quality clinical and epidemiological data with repositories for neuro-imaging, DNA, and serum from patients with TBI. - To refine and improve outcome assessment and develop health utility indices for TBI. - To develop multidimensional approaches to characterization and prediction of TBI. - To define patient profiles that predict efficacy of specific interventions (precision medicine). - To develop performance indicators for quality assurance and quality improvement in TBI care. - To validate the common data elements (CDEs) for broader use in international settings. - To develop an open database compatible with the Federal Interagency Traumatic Brain Injury Research (FITBIR). - To intensify networking activities and international collaborations in TBI. - To disseminate study results and management recommendations for TBI to healthcare professionals, policymakers, and consumers, aiming to improve healthcare for TBI at individual and population levels. - To develop a knowledge commons for TBI, integrating CENTER-TBI outputs into systematic reviews. The co-ordinating centre for the CENTER-TBI project is based at Antwerp University Hospital, department of Neurosurgery, Belgium . The project commenenced on 1.10.2013 and will finish on 31.03.2020. CENTER-TBI REGISTRY WORK PACKAGE (17) The CENTRE-TBI registry work package (17) – the sole part of CENTER TBI to which this application pertains - will be determining whether the results obtained from the core study are generalizable to TBI across Europe (EXTERNAL VALIDATION or generalisability). The CENTRE-TBI registry work package is being executed by the Centre for Urgent and Emergency Care Research (CURE) within the School of Health and Related Research, The University of Sheffield, UK. There are four other participants of this work package namely: Antwerp University Hospital (UZA), Belgium, Cologne-Merheim Medical Center (CMMC), Germany, Erasmus University Medical Center, Netherlands, and University of Melbourne Australia. The roles of these participants are advisory so none of the organisations listed above receive any raw data nor are they involved in data processing. Only analysed data summaries would be shared with participants of the registry work package. The registry work package commenced in July 2015 with a completion date of December 2018. The registry work package is based on pragmatic data collection of all patients with TBI seen in 21 countries namely: Austria, Belgium, Bosnia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway, Romania, Serbia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and UK . Data collection will be elementary and based on retrospective extraction from clinical records of data that are routinely collected clinically. No target recruitment number has been set for the CENTER-TBI registry. Therefore the data obtained from NHS Digital shall be used to determine the representativeness of the CENTER-TBI core study population in the United Kingdom only, in terms of age, gender, mechanism of injury, severity of TBI, treatment and outcome for the period of 2015 and 2016. In other words, the data from NHS Digital would assist the registry work package in assessing the generalisability of the CENTER-TBI core population when compared to the traumatic brain injury population in the United Kingdom. NHS Digital data is essential in this latter stage of the work package where the external validation analysis is currently being conducted. The findings from this work package and project as a whole, will hopefully impact the systems of TBI care and organisational aspects of TBI care delivery in the NHS. If WP 17 shows good generalisability of the CORE CENTER TBI data then new performance indicators and improved prognostic models will facilitate benchmarking and assessments of quality of TBI care by the NHS. Ultimately, by identifying more efficient and targeted TBI care for the NHS on this project, the project intends to achieve improved outcomes which will translate to reduced costs for the NHS. The findings of the CENTRE-TBI registry work package may increase the commercial value of the CENTER-TBI core study data findings. However, the Centre for Urgent and Emergency Care Research (CURE), School of Health and Related Research will not in anyway be involved in commercial activities relating to data obtained for the purpose of use on this work package. Fusion IP is listed in the consortium agreement as being responsible for the commercial exploitation activities of the University of Sheffield. Work package 17 team is neither linked, in contact with fusion IP nor will any data (raw or aggregated) be transferred to Fusion IP.