NHS Digital Data Release Register - reformatted

Derby Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust

Project 1 — DARS-NIC-11221-X6Y6N

Opt outs honoured: N

Sensitive: Non Sensitive

When: 2016/09 — 2018/05.

Repeats: Ongoing

Legal basis: Health and Social Care Act 2012

Categories: Anonymised - ICO code compliant

Datasets:

  • HES Data Interrogation System
  • Hospital Episode Statistics Admitted Patient Care
  • Hospital Episode Statistics Accident and Emergency
  • Hospital Episode Statistics Outpatients

Benefits:

The use of HDIS mean that users and organisations have a secure access, remotely hosted software application for the analysis of HES data. The system is hosted and audited by the HSCIC meaning that large transfers of data to on-site servers is reduced and the HSCIC has the ability to audit the use and access to the data. The provision of a tool enables that rapid analysis can be performed to the latest version of the data where speedy analysis is required to react to either local public health, commissioning or research requirements. There are huge benefits with this research as mentioned below. The use of HES data for AKI epidemiology has resulted in clearer picture of the disease burden in England. As mentioned previously, the health care system is different in each country and though the mortality for AKI has decreased in US, this is not the case for England. The previously provided data has highlighted that mortality for dialysis requiring AKI (AKI-D) remains unchanged in England over last 15-years and urgent action needs to be taken to tackle this. The data shared previously was presented at the World Congress of Nephrology 2015 in Cape Town, European Renal Association meeting in London 2015 and an oral presentation in the European Renal Association meeting in London 2015. 1) The epidemiology of hospitalised acute kidney injury not requiring dialysis in England from 1998 to 2013: retrospective analysis of hospital episode statistics. Kolhe NV, Muirhead AW, Wilkes SR, Fluck RJ, Taal MW. Int J Clin Pract. 2016 Jan 22. doi: 10.1111/ijcp.12774. [Epub ahead of print] 2. National trends in acute kidney injury requiring dialysis in England between 1998 and 2013. Kolhe NV, Muirhead AW, Wilkes SR, Fluck RJ, Taal MW. Kidney Int. 2015 Nov;88(5):1161-9. doi: 10.1038/ki.2015.234. Epub 2015 Jul 29 The previous data has highlighted that the population incidence of both AKI & AKI-D has increased more than 12 folds in England. This research has led to further projects by UK Renal Registry to collect dialysis data for AKI prospectively. The NHS as a whole will benefit. As the results of the analysis are freely available, policy makers can also make use of this to decide important healthcare policies. 1) Benefits aimed are to achieved by working on research question 1 (above): England will be the first country to report accurately the incidence and case-fatality from AKI at regional level from ICD-10 coded definition of AKI. Recent evidence from England indicates that outcome of dialysis requiring AKI is poor, though there is no evidence if this is due to regional variation. This study will be provide evidence if regional evidence exists and the factors influencing the regional variation. This will be useful for service planning at national level to reduce the regional variation and improve outcomes. Target: 12-18 months 2) Benefits aimed are to achieve by working on research question 2 (above): It is unclear if AKI after bypass surgery is influenced by keeping patients on a bypass pump. This study will provide evidence and help clinicians with the knowledge gained to improve patient and renal outcome after cardiac bypass surgery. Target: 12-18 months 3) Benefits aimed to achieve by working on research question 3 (above): A better understanding of the factors associated with acute kidney injury in the form a risk score will help to prevent not only community acquired AKI, but also hospital acquired AKI by stratifying patients, who haven’t developed AKI, into low risk or high risk category. Validation in other regions will increase the robustness of the risks core. Target: 12-24 months 4) Benefits aimed are to achieve by working on research question 4 (above): Long term outcome of dialysis requiring AKI has been hampered by bias in the form of being either from specific centers or specific locations like intensive care. The national data available gives the power to investigate long-term patient and renal outcomes which can be further stratified by region. The benefit of this research questions is that it will identify best practice and set a benchmark for future improvements and will inform strategies that lead to a reduction in mortality rates. Target: 12-24 months. There is increasing evidence that AKI episodes, transient and permanent, lead to increased risk of end stage renal disease and all-cause mortality. The linked data with HES and UKRR will provide longitudinal data confirming and quantifying this relationship. Intervention studies initiated in selected locations in England can help understand the effectiveness and help prevent progression of AKI. In summary, it is expected that the benefits to include further published work in peer-reviewed medical journals, and further findings which may lead to quality improvement initiatives.

Outputs:

Users of HDIS are able to produce outputs from the system in a number of formats. The system has the ability to be able to produce small row count extracts for local analysis in Excel or other local analysis software. Users are also able to produce tabulations, aggregations, reports, charts, graphs and statistical outputs for viewing on screen or export to a local system. Any outputs that are produced from the systems that are to be published or shared will be small number suppressed outputs in line with the HES analysis guide. Users are not permitted to link data extracted from the system to any other data items which make the data identifiable. The results of the analysis will be presented as abstracts or posters in following meetings - Renal Association, British Renal Society, European Renal Association and American Society of Nephrology. The results will also be submitted to following reputed journals like BMJ, Plos Medicine or Lancet and Renal journals like Journal of American Society of Nephrology, Kidney International, Nephrology Dialysis and Transplantation etc It is expected that the analysis will take place in October 2016. Considering the review delays and differing resubmission process of each journals, it is difficult to predict dates. The outputs are for medical professionals in any speciality, given the importance of AKI. The output will also be useful to policy makers and commissioners Many journal articles can be published as open access. All manuscripts will be available free of charge and will be available to the public. Outputs will contain only aggregate level of data and small numbers suppressed in line with the HES analysis guide. As mentioned above the output may change as a result of findings, but the Trust expect to produce outputs in 12 months’ time. AKI in relation to cardiological procedures (cardio-pulmonary bypass graft), as mentioned earlier, will be analysed followed by risk modelling for community acquired AKI. Additional information to address DAAG comments 5th April 2016; 1) Regional variation in dialysis requiring acute kidney injury (AKI-D) in England – 6 months a. The outputs will be in the form of regional incidence of AKI-D in each region of England from 2001 to 2015. b. Regional mortality of AKI-D in each year from 2000 to 2015. c. Tables or forest plot of multivariable analysis of mortality determinants 2) Evaluate factors affecting renal and patient outcome in acute kidney injury after medical conditions or cardiac procedures – 12-18 months a. Table and forest plots of multivariable analysis of determinants of AKI-D after CABG 3) Risk score for AKI in community – 12-18 months a. Table and forest plots of multivariable analysis of determinants of AKI-D after CABG b. Table of AKI risk score and results of validation from other regions of England. 4) Long term patient and renal outcome after AKI-D – 24 months a. Kaplan-Meir survival analysis curves to demonstrate acturial survival. b. Cox-proportional hazard analysis and survival curve demonstrating adjusted hazards for patient and renal survival.

Processing:

HDIS is accessed via a two-factor secure authentication method to approved users who are in receipt of an encryption token ID. Users have to attend training before the account is set up and users are only permitted to access the datasets that are agreed within this agreement. Users log onto the HDIS system and are presented with a SAS software application called Enterprise Guide which presents the users with a list of available data sets and available reference data tables so that they can return appropriate descriptions to the coded data. The access and use of the system is fully auditable and all users have to comply with the use of the data as specified in this agreement. The software tool also provides users with the ability to perform full data minimisation and filtering of the HES data as part of processing activities. Users are not permitted to upload data into the system. Licences are for named users only. Logon details are non-transferable and for use only by the named user. The data obtained will be used to calculate Charlson’s comorbidity index and will be analysed in SPSS v22, statistical software. The data will not be accessed from outside UK. Only direct employees of the Trust will have access to the data, with only the named user(s) having access to the HDIS system itself. Record-level data cannot be downloaded from the HDIS system. Linkage to other data sources is only permitted where this does not increase the risk of re-identification such as geographical databases which are in the public domain. As only aggregated data can be downloaded from HDIS, and it is not possible to upload data into HDIS, any linkage is only carried out on aggregated data. For subsequent linkage with UK renal registry (UKRR) for renal outcome of AKI-D, HSCIC will be requested to perform linkage and anonymise the data before processing for analysis. Any request for linkage to the UKRR would be subject to an application to the HSCIC. Only aggregated data will be downloaded from HDIS. However the applicant will receive separately an extract in relation to a patient cohort recognised as having AKI (by ICD 10 code of N17) and requiring dialysis (by X403 & X404), excluding patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) stage 5. The additional procedure codes which will be investigated will be K40-K44 for cardiac bypass surgery and other code for On-Pump bypass (Y73.1). Under this agreement, record level data will be provided by HSCIC in relation to the above cohort established within HDIS. This record level data will be an extract once agreed with the applicant, and will subsequently be analyzed to study long term outcome – Renal as well as patient outcome (survival) over a period of 15 years. The applicant will calculate the time on survival (days/months) and use statistical analysis (cox proportional hazard analysis and Kaplan Meir survival analysis) to plot and compare survival in different age groups and region. The Trust also anticipates a request to HSCIC in future to perform anonymised linkage to other dataset such as UKRR (UK Renal Registry) dataset to study the progression of AKI into CKD - such linkage is not part of this agreement. No patient identifiable data will be used for analysis and publishing. For detailed statistical analysis, the Trust may need to obtain statistical advice from Trust statistician.

Objectives:

Access is provided to the entire HES dataset (non-identifiable) for the specific purposes as listed below. The purpose of the request is to use information available in HES to study epidemiology of acute kidney injury in England. Specifically, the objectives of the research are 1) To study regional variation in dialysis requiring acute kidney injury (AKI-D) in England. 2) To evaluate factors affecting renal and patient outcome in acute kidney injury after medical conditions or procedures 3) To develop AKI risk score for community acquired AKI 4) To study long term patient and renal outcomes after dialysis requiring AKI To date there is a paucity of data on the incidence of AKI whether community or hospital-acquired. The reported prevalence of AKI from US data ranges from 1% (community-acquired) up to 7.1% (hospital-acquired) of all hospital admissions. The population incidence of AKI from UK data ranges from 172 per million population (pmp) per year from early data8 up to 486-630 pmp/year from more recent series, again depending on definition. The incidence of AKI requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) ranges from 22 pmp/year to 203 pmp/year. An estimated 5–20% of critically ill patients experience an episode of AKI during the course of their illness and AKI receiving RRT has been reported in 4·9% of all admissions to intensive-care units (ICU)12. Data from the Intensive Care National Audit Research Centre (ICNARC) suggests that AKI accounts for nearly 10 percent of all ICU bed days. There are 4 studies from United States (S), reporting that the incidence and case-fatality of AKI has decreased, but the health care system in US is insurance based and the data used is from billing databases with their own limitations. The data will allow lay people, the medical community and healthcare policy makers to appreciate the true burden and variation of this important disease. This is important because it is the first critical step in developing strategies to reduce the incidence of AKI as well as improve outcomes. As such this study is well aligned with initiatives undertaken by NHS England to better understand the burden of AKI in England with the goal of developing national initiatives to reduce the incidence and improve survival. The research will be performed in Derby Teaching Hospital NHS Trust The data from HSCIC will provide information regarding incidence and case fatality of AKI in England and specifically in relation to high-risk cardio-vascular procedures. The data will also be used to specifically develop AKI risk scores for community acquired AKI. The research will be based in UK and there will be no element of this work performed abroad.


Project 2 — DARS-NIC-147788-X0G5L

Opt outs honoured: N

Sensitive: Sensitive, and Non Sensitive

When: 2016/04 (or before) — 2017/02.

Repeats: Ongoing, One-Off

Legal basis: Informed Patient consent to permit the receipt, processing and release of data by the HSCIC

Categories: Identifiable

Datasets:

  • MRIS - Cause of Death Report
  • MRIS - Cohort Event Notification Report
  • Hospital Episode Statistics Admitted Patient Care

Benefits:

The Renal Risk in Derby Study aims to improve knowledge and understanding about disease progression and management of chronic kidney disease stage 3 in primary care. Studies have estimated the prevalence of CKD in the general population to be up to 10 %. The majority of these people are managed in primary care. The information provided by this research pertains to a large population of people, mostly managed in primary care. As such, it is hoped that results from this study will inform future national guidance (specifically, National Institute of Health and Care Excellence CKD guidance) in the management of Chronic Kidney Disease in Primary care , directly benefiting the patients

Outputs:

The HES data requested will provide information about cardiovascular events and acute kidney injury in the study period. Analysis of these data will be published in peer reviewed, scientific journals, and will be included in a PhD thesis. Completion of the PhD thesis and publication of the majority of results should be complete by the end of 2018. Throughout 2016 and 2017 the Trust intend to present data at nephrology conferences both nationally and internationally. Conferences to be presented at include: - British Renal Society and Renal Association (Nationally) - American Society of Nephrology, International Society of Nephrology, European Renal Association (Internationally) Data from the study will also be conveyed to local General Practitioners through local meetings throughout 2016. Baseline and first year follow-up data from the study has already been published in the scientific literature and presented at international conferences (See below). The main aims of the study are to investigate the predictors of progressive renal disease in CKD 3 patients, and to evaluate the risk of cardiovascular events in this population. The aim is to publish articles on cardiovascular outcome and risk prediction in this cohort. HES data regarding acute kidney injury will also allow analysis of risks of chronic kidney disease progression. Selected Previous RRID Study Publications 1. Taal MW, Thurston V, McIntyre NJ, Fluck RJ, McIntyre CW. Impact of Vitamin D Status on the Relative Increase in Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Parathyroid Hormone in Chronic Kidney Disease. Kidney Int; published online 15 Jan 2014. 2. Fraser SD, Roderick PJ, McIntyre NJ, Harris S, McIntyre CW, Fluck RJ, Taal MW. Suboptimal blood pressure control in chronic kidney disease stage 3: baseline data from a cohort study in primary care. BMC Fam Pract. 2013 Jun 24;14:88. 3. McIntyre NJ, Fluck RJ, McIntyre CW, Fakis A, Taal MW. Determinants of arterial stiffness in chronic kidney disease stage 3. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e55444 4. Fraser SD, Roderick PJ, McIntyre NJ, Harris S, McIntyre CW, Fluck RJ, Taal MW. Socio-economic disparities in the distribution of cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease stage 3. Nephron Clin Pract. 2012;122(1-2):58-65. 5. McIntyre NJ, Fluck R, McIntyre C, Taal M. Treatment needs and diagnosis awareness in primary care patients with chronic kidney disease. Br J Gen Pract. 2012 Apr;62(597):e227-32. 6. Evans PD, McIntyre NJ, Fluck RJ, McIntyre CW, Taal MW. Anthropomorphic measurements that include central fat distribution are more closely related with key risk factors than BMI in CKD stage 3. PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e34699. 7. McIntyre NJ, Fluck RJ, McIntyre CW, Taal MW. Skin autofluorescence and the association with renal and cardiovascular risk factors in chronic kidney disease stage 3. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011 Oct;6(10):2356-63. 8. McIntyre NJ, Fluck RJ, McIntyre CW, Taal MW. Risk profile in chronic kidney disease stage 3: older versus younger patients. Nephron Clin Pract. 2011;119(4):c269-76. Recent RRID Study Conference Presentations (attended by representative from NICE) American Society of Nephrology November 2015, Poster Presentations Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 3 over 5 years in a Prospective Primary Care Cohort Study A Shardlow, NJ McIntyre, R Fluck, CW McIntyre and MW Taal. Change in Skin Autofluorescence Over One Year Predicts Mortality at Five Years in a Prospective Cohort of People with Chronic Kidney Disease A Shardlow, NJ McIntyre, R Fluck, CW McIntyre and MW Taal. British Renal Society June 2015, Oral Presentation One Year Incidence of Mortality and Progression in Older vs. Younger People with Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 3 in Primary Care A Shardlow, NJ McIntyre, R Fluck, CW McIntyre and MW Taal.

Processing:

The RRID study cohort is available to HSCIC already (same cohort as MR1176 / NIC-147788-X0G5L) and will be used to trace against HES. Once data is supplied from HSCIC to Derby, it will be used in analysis of cardiovascular events and acute kidney injury in the study cohort. The data will be stored on a password-secured hard drive, and will be accessed only by those directly involved in the study.

Objectives:

Defining the risk of kidney function decline and cardiovascular disease among patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3: The renal risk in Derby (R2ID) Study - Most people with Chronic Kidney Disease are looked after in primary care, including those with moderate kidney disease (stage 3). Prevalence of CKD Stage 3 may be approximately 4.5% of population, therefore a significant proportion of the general population. There is a need to develop a comprehensive description of patients with CKD stage 3, assess their management needs and develop scoring systems to predict risk with respect to renal and cardiovascular outcomes. The aims of the study are: 1. To define the risk of kidney function decline in a cohort of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3. 2. To decline the risk of cardiovascular disease in a cohort of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3.


Project 3 — DARS-NIC-389767-B0C0M

Opt outs honoured: Y

Sensitive: Non Sensitive

When: 2016/12 — 2017/02.

Repeats: Ongoing

Legal basis: Section 42(4) of the Statistics and Registration Service Act (2007) as amended by section 287 of the Health and Social Care Act (2012)

Categories: Identifiable

Datasets:

  • MRIS - Cause of Death Report

Benefits:

The results of this study will be targeted towards relevant commissioners and clinicians (through peer-reviewed journals and aforementioned conferences)who are managing coeliac disease. This will enable them to make improved commissioning decisions about the number of diagnoses that they should be seeing in their areas and the size of the health risks that patients run with particular emphasis on cancer. This is particularly important because it is known that coeliac disease is presently underdiagnosed in the community and if identified can be treated successfully with a gluten free diet, having a positive impact on direct patient care.

Outputs:

The Trust have published a paper using the data previously acquired (Am J Gastro 2011;106:933) to show that there is a statistically significant increase in all-cause mortality in coeliac disease of 37% due to cancer, digestive diseases and respiratory diseases. The mortality had not changed over the 25 years of the study so that cases of coeliac disease picked up by serological tests in more recent years who may have milder disease are still at risk of increased mortality. So the Trust have provided key information for clinicians and patients as to the natural history of coeliac disease in this regard. This paper has been referenced by other workers in the field. Results have also been presented at gastroenterological meetings attended by doctors of all grades, nurses and dieticians. Results do reach the gastroenterological community through journals and lectures and reach patients as they discuss the risk issues with their health care workers.

Processing:

The information is contained on an Access data base for processing and use will be made of standard comparative-analysis statistical tests to obtain results.The results are in the form of reports which are published in peer-reviewed journals and presentations which are delivered at conferences for clinicians and commissioners.

Objectives:

This is a study of the epidemiology of coeliac disease in Southern Derbyshire for the years 1958-2014 with regard to diagnosis rates and causes of mortality. This will yield important information about the epidemiology of coeliac disease in the UK over the last half century.The cohort was originally obtained from patients under the direct care of the applicant whilst they were a practising clinician. The applicant has already received death certificates for the years to 2008 from ONS under MR1026